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Table 4 Applicability of the CHIME framework to assessing hikikomori care

From: Understanding the experiences of hikikomori through the lens of the CHIME framework: connectedness, hope and optimism, identity, meaning in life, and empowerment; systematic review

Domain Applicable Not studied
Connectedness
 Support by peers or others  
 Relationships  
 Part of community  
Hope and optimism
 Belief in recovery  
 Motivation to change  
 Hope-inspiring relationships  
 Positive thinking and valuing success  
 Having dreams and aspirations  
Identity
 Dimensions of identity:   
  Race  
  Gender  
  Social class  
  Culture  
  Religion  
  Sexual orientation  
  Personal attributes / characteristics / identity  
 Rebuilding/redefining a positive sense of identity  
 Overcoming stigma  
Meaning in life
 Meaning of hikikomori experiences:   
  Duration of social withdrawal  
  Activities of daily life  
  Feelings & Thoughts  
 Spirituality  
 Quality of life  
 Meaningful life and social roles/goals  
 Rebuilding life  
Empowerment
 Personal responsibility  
 Control in life  
 Focusing upon strengths