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Table 2 Pearson's correlations of embitterment with socio-demographic characteristics, traumatic experiences, post-migration living difficulties, moral injury appraisals and general self-efficacy (N = 71)

From: An exploratory study of embitterment in traumatized refugees

Measure Gender Stay PTE PMLD MI GSE EMB
Gender  − .09  − .22  − .09  − .11 .09  − .05
Stay  − .09 .05  − .24 .08  − .15 .15
PTE  − .22 .05 .13 .20  − .10 .15
PMLD  − .09  − .24 .13 .07  − .09 .24
MI  − .11 .08 .20 .07  − .11 .43**
GSE .09  − .15  − .10  − .09  − .11  − .43**
EMB  − .05 .15 .15 .24 .43**  − .43**
  1. Stay, Duration of stay in Switzerland; PTE, Potentially traumatic events; PMLD, Post-migration Living difficulties; MI, Moral injury-other appraisals; GSE, General self-efficacy, EMB, Embitterment
  2. *p < .01; ** p < .002 (p-values are Bonferroni adjusted for five related constructs)