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Table 3 Logistic regression estimates for psychological distress and low SWB among older adults in India

From: Association of self-perceived income status with psychological distress and subjective well-being: a cross-sectional study among older adults in India

Background characteristics Psychological distress Low subjective well-being
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Self-perceived income sufficiency
No income 1.52*(1.27,1.82) 1.42*(1.2,1.69)
Has income and fully sufficient Ref Ref
Has income and partially sufficient 2.23*(1.75,2.84) 1.96*(1.55,2.47)
Has income and not sufficient 1.72*(1.36,2.17) 1.70*(1.36,2.13)
Working status (last one year)
Never worked 1.25*(1.02,1.53) 1.18(0.97,1.43)
Currently working Ref Ref
Retired 0.52*(0.37,0.73) 0.52*(0.38,0.72)
Receiving pension
No 0.76*(0.63,0.93) 0.78*(0.65,0.95)
Yes Ref Ref
Asset ownership
No 1.34*(1.16,1.54) 1.32*(1.15,1.52)
Yes Ref Ref
Sex
Male Ref Ref
Female 0.68*(0.59,0.79) 0.76*(0.66,0.87)
Co-residing with children
No 1.05(0.93,1.20) 1.21*(1.07,1.37)
Yes Ref Ref
Age group (in years)
60–69 Ref Ref
70–79 1.34*(1.18,1.53) 1.37*(1.21,1.55)
80 +  1.81*(1.51,2.16) 1.82*(1.52,2.17)
Educational status
No education 2.17*(1.55,3.02) 2.04*(1.49,2.81)
Below 5 years 1.59*(1.14,2.22) 1.5*(1.09,2.06)
6 to 10 years 0.98(0.71,1.36) 1.05(0.77,1.44)
11 + years Ref Ref
Marital status
Not in union 1.16*(1.02,1.33) 1.14*(1.01,1.30)
Currently in union Ref Ref
Decision making power
No role 1.79*(1.44,2.23) 2.14*(1.72,2.67)
Partial decision making 1.24*(1.09,1.40) 1.31*(1.16,1.48)
Absolute role Ref Ref
Community involvement
No 1.44*(1.26,1.64) 1.51*(1.33,1.72)
Yes Ref Ref
Have someone to trust
No 1.38*(1.20,1.59) 1.56*(1.36,1.80)
Yes Ref Ref
Experienced economic violence
No Ref Ref
Yes 2.88*(2.26,3.67) 1.69*(1.33,2.15)
Chronic diseases
No Ref Ref
Yes 1.83*(1.61,2.07) 1.68*(1.49,1.89)
Caste
Scheduled Caste 1.21*(1.03,1.41) 1.22*(1.05,1.42)
Scheduled Tribe 0.93(0.72,1.19) 0.92(0.72,1.17)
Other Backward Class 0.98(0.84,1.15) 1.20*(1.04,1.39)
Others Ref Ref
Religion
Hindu Ref Ref
Muslims 1.18(0.94,1.48) 1.14(0.92,1.42)
Sikh 0.99(0.67,1.46) 1.07(0.77,1.50)
Others 0.96(0.70,1.33) 1.08(0.8,1.45)
Household wealth status
Poorest 1.56*(1.22,1.99) 3.01*(2.38,3.81)
Poorer 1.63*(1.30,2.04) 2.26*(1.82,2.81)
Middle 1.41*(1.14,1.76) 1.64*(1.33,2.03)
Richer 1.19(0.96,1.48) 1.39*(1.13,1.72)
Richest Ref Ref
Place of residence
Rural Ref Ref
Urban 0.93(0.82,1.05) 1.11(0.99,1.25)
State
Himachal Pradesh Ref Ref
Punjab 0.40*(0.29,0.57) 0.73(0.54,1.00)
West Bengal 1.83*(1.46,2.30) 4.16*(3.33,5.19)
Orissa 2.39*(1.92,2.97) 2.02*(1.61,2.52)
Maharashtra 1.12(0.89,1.41) 2.51*(2.02,3.13)
Kerala 0.83(0.64,1.07) 1.01(0.79,1.31)
Tamil Nadu 3.39*(2.68,4.29) 1.99*(1.57,2.52)
  1. Ref: Reference category; CI: Confidence interval; OR: Odds Ratio; *if p < 0.05