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Table 1 Socio-economic and demographic profile of older adults interviewed in India

From: Association of self-perceived income status with psychological distress and subjective well-being: a cross-sectional study among older adults in India

Background characteristics Sample Percentage
Self-perceived income sufficiency
No income 3,967 43.0
Has income and fully sufficient 2,168 23.5
Has income and partially sufficient 2,433 26.4
Has income and not sufficient 663 7.2
Working status (last one year)
Never worked 6,212 67.3
Currently working 2,223 24.1
Retired 796 8.6
Receiving pension
No 6,447 69.8
Yes 2,784 30.2
Asset ownership
No 1,630 17.7
Yes 7,601 82.3
Sex   
Male 4,372 47.4
Female 4,859 52.6
Co-residing with children
No 2,738 29.7
Yes 6,493 70.3
Age group (in years)
60–69 5,704 61.8
70–79 2,536 27.5
80 +  991 10.7
Educational status
No education 4,684 50.7
Below 5 years 1,900 20.6
6 to 10 years 2,086 22.6
11 + years 562 6.1
Marital status
Not in union 3,649 39.5
Currently in union 5,582 60.5
Decision making power
No role 512 5.6
Partial role 2,218 24.0
Absolute role 6,501 70.4
Community involvement
No 1896 20.5
Yes 7335 79.5
Have someone to trust
No 1600 17.3
Yes 7631 82.7
Experienced economic violence
No 8,781 95.1
Yes 450 4.9
Chronic diseases
No 3268 35.4
Yes 5963 64.6
Caste
Scheduled Castes 1,911 20.7
Scheduled Tribes 515 5.6
Other Backward Classes 3,364 36.4
Others 3,441 37.3
Religion
Hindus 7,324 79.3
Muslims 651 7.1
Sikhs 870 9.4
Others 386 4.2
Household wealth status
Poorest 2,169 23.5
Poorer 2,029 22.0
Middle 1,913 20.7
Richer 1,720 18.6
Richest 1,399 15.2
Place of residence
Rural 6,827 74.0
Urban 2,404 26.0
State
Himachal Pradesh 1,471 15.9
Punjab 1,279 13.9
West Bengal 1,128 12.2
Odisha 1,454 15.8
Maharashtra 1,229 13.3
Kerala 1,341 14.5
Tamil Nadu 1,330 14.4
Total 9,231 100.0