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Table 2 Factors and items of the BISD scale

From: Preliminary development of a bystander intervention scale for depression and the examination of socio-demographic correlates amongst Singapore university students

Items Loading Cronbach’s α
Factor 1: Awareness of depression among peers   0.611
I am aware that there are students at my university who are experiencing depressive symptoms 0.887  
I have seen students showing signs of depression at my university 0.553  
It is evident to me that someone who is experiencing depressive symptoms needs support 0.425  
Factor 2: Vigilance towards possible symptoms of depression   0.491
If a peer withdraws from activities that they usually enjoy, they may just be tired (Reverse scoring) 0.496  
If someone tells me that they feel hopeless about the future, I will think that it is a phase that everyone goes through (Reverse scoring) 0.793  
Factor 3: Knowledge on how to intervene   0.746
I know what to say to support a student who is experiencing depression 0.425  
I know who to refer a peer who show signs of depression for help 0.971  
I know who to alert when a peer is in crisis 0.866  
I would inform the university’s faculty if a peer is showing worsening signs of depression and is reluctant to seek help 0.410  
Factor 4: Acceptance of responsibility to intervene   0.742
If I am aware that a peer is showing signs of depression, I feel it is my responsibility to help the person 0.809  
I believe that my actions can have a positive impact on a peer who is having depression 0.521  
If I saw a peer who I did not know very well showing signs of depression, I would help them 0.706  
If I notice a peer with signs of depression, I will ask them how things are going 0.688  
If I know a peer who shows signs of depression, I would offer to accompany him to seek help 0.555  
Items removed   
I know what are the signs and symptoms of depression   
I don’t think there is anything I can do to help a peer who is having depression   
I feel that other students are in a better position to help a peer who is showing signs of depression