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Table 4 Results for two different logistic regression models, investigating the association between demographic variables, variables of substance use, media use and sleep (A) as well as COVID19 impact (B) and the total Schizotypal Personality Score (Total SPQ) as well as its dimensions

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: a comparison between Germany and the UK

  Total SPQ Eccentricity Paranoid ideation Social anhedonia Anomalous experiences and beliefs Distorted speech Social Anxiety
E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val.
(A)                      
(Intercept) 3.354 33.588 < 0.000*** 1.155 3.831 0.000*** 1.631 6.174 0.000*** 2.585 12.295 < 0.000 0.415 1.648 0.099 1.129 4.317 0.000*** 1.865 8.615 < 0.000
Country of residence: Germany 0.026 1.077 0.282 0.001 0.017 0.986 0.370 5.506 0.000*** − 0.004 − 0.087 0.931 0.350 5.462 0.000*** − 0.089 − 1.415 0.157 − 0.270 − 5.281 0.000***
Gender: Female 0.017 0.684 0.494 − 0.335 − 4.639 0.000*** 0.083 1.236 0.216 − 0.273 − 5.393 0.000*** 0.164 2.646 0.008** 0.077 1.152 0.249 0.354 5.953 0.000***
Age − 0.003 − 3.875 0.000*** − 0.009 − 3.219 0.001*** − 0.009 − 3.909 0.000*** 0.001 0.397 0.692 0.006 3.126 0.002** − 0.005 − 2.008 0.045* − 0.009 − 4.598 0.000***
Highest education − 0.077 10.421 < 0.000*** − 0.042 − 1.851 0.064 − 0.114 − 5.958 0.000*** − 0.090 − 5.836 0.000*** − 0.093 − 5.220 0.000*** − 0.052 − 2.696 0.007** − 0.048 − 2.975 0.003**
Alcohol consumpt − 0.020 − 4.154 0.000*** − 0.020 − 1.370 0.171 − 0.017 − 1.370 0.171 − 0.038 − 3.712 0.000*** 0.000 − 0.035 0.972 − 0.003 − 0.220 0.826 − 0.031 − 2.962 0.003**
Tobacco consumpt 0.014 2.652 0.008** 0.020 1.236 0.217 0.031 2.429 0.015* − 0.006 − 0.524 0.600 0.043 3.763 0.000*** 0.009 0.692 0.489 − 0.009 − 0.695 0.487
Vaping consumpt 0.045 4.716 0.000*** 0.121 5.057 0.000*** 0.035 1.334 0.182 0.027 1.216 0.224 0.008 0.299 0.765 0.066 2.830 0.005** 0.039 1.852 0.064
Marihuana consumpt 0.038 3.706 0.000*** 0.027 0.879 0.380 0.040 1.516 0.130 0.009 0.404 0.686 0.049 2.018 0.044* 0.053 2.055 0.040* 0.042 1.918 0.055
Social media usage 0.043 3.745 0.000*** − 0.013 − 0.356 0.721 0.091 2.985 0.003** 0.037 1.488 0.137 0.069 2.466 0.014* 0.066 2.187 0.029* 0.010 0.384 0.701
Video Games 0.143 11.585 < 0.000 0.260 7.429 0.000*** 0.143 4.380 0.000*** 0.147 5.730 0.000*** 0.026 0.755 0.450 0.133 4.097 0.000*** 0.154 5.892 0.000***
Print media usage − 0.053 − 4.416 0.000*** − 0.057 − 1.542 0.123 − 0.116 − 3.669 0.000*** − 0.102 − 3.931 0.000*** 0.049 1.666 0.096 − 0.070 − 2.203 0.028* − 0.032 − 1.259 0.208
Sleep during the week − 0.056 − 2.391 0.017* − 0.134 − 1.895 0.058 − 0.125 − 2.047 0.041* − 0.075 − 1.485 0.137 0.002 0.034 0.973 0.041 0.653 0.514 − 0.072 − 1.455 0.146
Sleep during the weekend − 0.055 − 2.526 0.012* − 0.019 − 0.289 0.773 − 0.079 − 1.388 0.165 − 0.124 − 2.637 0.008** − 0.014 − 0.261 0.794 − 0.120 − 2.038 0.042* 0.018 0.380 0.704
Exercise − 0.013 − 1.342 0.180 − 0.004 − 0.151 0.880 0.015 0.617 0.537 − 0.040 − 1.987 0.047* 0.012 0.557 0.578 − 0.014 − 0.555 0.579 − 0.020 − 0.955 0.340
Time spent outside − 0.048 − 5.125 0.000*** − 0.005 − 0.182 0.855 − 0.034 − 1.354 0.176 − 0.062 − 3.067 0.002** − 0.052 − 2.288 0.022* − 0.029 − 1.148 0.251 − 0.073 − 3.517 0.000***
(B)                      
(Intercept) 2.196 23.994 < 0.000*** − 0.218 − 0.775 0.438 0.426 1.779 0.075 1.034 5.365 0.000*** − 0.347 − 1.560 0.119 0.424 1.755 0.079 0.529 2.605 0.009**
Country of residence: Germany 0.034 1.390 0.164 0.017 0.230 0.818 0.380 5.518 0.000*** 0.002 0.033 0.974 0.327 5.163 0.000*** − 0.078 − 1.240 0.215 − 0.244 − 4.709 0.000***
Gender: Female − 0.087 − 3.623 0.000*** − 0.535 − 7.733 0.000*** − 0.009 − 0.145 0.885 − 0.373 − 7.715 0.000*** 0.106 1.775 0.076 − 0.035 − 0.547 0.584 0.265 4.568 0.000***
Age − 0.007 − 8.805 < 0.000 − 0.010 − 4.415 0.000*** − 0.014 − 6.760 0.000*** − 0.004 − 2.675 0.007** 0.006 3.450 0.001*** − 0.008 − 4.156 0.000*** − 0.013 − 7.412 0.000***
Highest education − 0.063 − 7.982 0.000*** − 0.050 − 2.027 0.043* − 0.099 − 4.839 0.000*** − 0.067 − 3.989 0.000*** − 0.106 − 5.727 0.000*** − 0.033 − 1.555 0.120 − 0.016 − 0.913 0.361
Concerned about life stability 0.021 2.286 0.022* − 0.005 − 0.181 0.857 0.067 2.793 0.005** 0.030 1.527 0.127 0.067 3.069 0.002** − 0.045 − 1.799 0.072 − 0.001 − 0.046 0.964
Hopeful for an end of COVID19 − 0.029 − 2.990 0.003** − 0.053 − 1.762 0.078 − 0.003 − 0.108 0.914 − 0.030 − 1.457 0.145 − 0.025 − 1.081 0.280 − 0.024 − 0.951 0.342 − 0.036 − 1.762 0.078
Financial impact: yes 0.021 2.159 0.031* 0.067 2.224 0.026* 0.009 0.331 0.740 − 0.029 − 1.377 0.169 0.090 3.962 0.000*** 0.020 0.786 0.432 0.003 0.119 0.905
Work-changes—home office: yes − 0.067 − 2.703 0.007** 0.009 0.118 0.906 − 0.089 − 1.347 0.178 − 0.038 − 0.707 0.479 − 0.001 − 0.019 0.985 − 0.082 − 1.258 0.208 − 0.151 − 2.792 0.005**
Work-changes—unpaid leave: yes − 0.299 − 4.071 0.000*** − 0.270 − 1.138 0.255 − 0.357 − 1.835 0.066 − 0.501 − 2.805 0.005** − 0.321 − 1.884 0.060 − 0.079 − 0.457 0.648 − 0.276 − 1.788 0.074
Work-changes—lost job: yes − 0.045 − 0.765 0.444 − 0.119 − 0.630 0.529 0.076 0.542 0.588 − 0.041 − 0.318 0.750 − 0.041 − 0.294 0.769 0.151 1.043 0.297 − 0.260 − 1.913 0.056
Work-changes—no change: yes 0.080 2.690 0.007** 0.139 1.502 0.133 0.036 0.453 0.650 0.144 2.306 0.021* 0.115 1.643 0.100 − 0.079 − 0.963 0.335 0.096 1.497 0.134
Impact on quality of family relations 0.075 5.591 0.000*** 0.103 2.476 0.013* 0.058 1.643 0.100 0.068 2.396 0.017* 0.113 3.436 0.001*** 0.073 2.074 0.038* 0.051 1.797 0.072
Impact on quality of social relations − 0.010 − 0.736 0.462 0.028 0.682 0.495 − 0.052 − 1.434 0.152 − 0.089 − 3.107 0.002** 0.033 1.020 0.308 0.015 0.426 0.670 0.023 0.797 0.426
Physical health status 0.131 10.834 < 0.000*** 0.188 5.049 0.000*** 0.090 2.800 0.005** 0.146 5.660 0.000*** 0.107 3.553 0.000*** 0.115 3.608 0.000*** 0.148 5.703 0.000***
Mental health status 0.174 15.139 < 0.000*** 0.234 6.603 0.000*** 0.232 7.650 0.000*** 0.188 7.719 0.000*** 0.068 2.409 0.016* 0.142 4.731 0.000*** 0.194 7.859 0.000***
  1. *< .05; **< .01; ***< .001