Skip to main content

Table 3 Results for two different logistic regression models, investigating the association between demographic variables, variables of substance use, media use and sleep (A) as well as COVID19 impact (B) and the psychological symptoms (SCL dimensions) as well as global mental health status (GSI)

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: a comparison between Germany and the UK

  Global Symptom Index Depressive Symptoms Dysthymic Symptoms Agoraphobic Symptoms Vegetative Symptoms Symptoms of Mistrust Sociophobic symptoms
E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val. E.S. z-val. p val.
(A)                      
(Intercept) 0.020 0.026 0.979 0.610 1.156 0.248 0.501 1.084 0.278 − 0.024 − 0.033 0.973 0.279 0.297 0.767 0.316 0.527 0.598 0.965 1.619 0.105
Country of residence: Germany − 0.362 − 2.033 0.042* − 0.346 − 2.803 0.005** − 0.562 − 5.269 0.000*** − 0.928 − 5.391 0.000*** − 0.115 − 0.509 0.611 0.223 1.513 0.130 − 0.297 − 2.122 0.034*
Gender: female 0.468 2.179 0.029* 0.344 2.444 0.015* 0.314 2.504 0.012* 0.527 2.408 0.016* 0.638 2.223 0.026* − 0.043 − 0.295 0.768 0.497 2.891 0.004**
Age − 0.008 − 1.186 0.235 − 0.002 − 0.373 0.709 − 0.006 − 1.371 0.170 − 0.006 − 0.943 0.346 − 0.015 − 1.730 0.084 − 0.002 − 0.327 0.744 − 0.025 − 4.423 0.000***
Highest education − 0.089 − 1.569 0.117 − 0.121 − 3.142 0.002** 0.001 0.016 0.987 − 0.113 − 2.087 0.037* − 0.190 − 2.829 0.005** − 0.094 − 2.117 0.034* − 0.071 − 1.573 0.116
Alcohol consumpt − 0.003 − 0.092 0.927 0.049 1.922 0.055 0.006 0.266 0.790 0.027 0.748 0.454 − 0.006 − 0.126 0.900 0.005 0.168 0.867 − 0.011 − 0.397 0.691
Tobacco consumpt − 0.017 − 0.386 0.700 − 0.004 − 0.138 0.890 0.015 0.624 0.533 − 0.010 − 0.245 0.807 − 0.069 − 1.217 0.224 − 0.028 − 0.832 0.406 − 0.007 − 0.207 0.836
Vaping consumpt 0.076 1.237 0.216 0.037 0.753 0.451 0.048 1.166 0.244 − 0.024 − 0.300 0.764 0.049 0.615 0.538 0.045 0.777 0.437 0.044 0.791 0.429
Marihuana consumpt 0.125 2.018 0.044* 0.083 1.737 0.082 0.076 1.827 0.068 0.067 0.975 0.330 0.128 1.625 0.104 0.085 1.544 0.123 0.060 1.098 0.272
Social media usage 0.173 1.975 0.048* 0.053 0.874 0.382 0.081 1.521 0.128 0.132 1.559 0.119 0.133 1.241 0.215 0.089 1.280 0.201 − 0.038 − 0.529 0.597
Video games 0.138 1.536 0.125 0.127 2.015 0.044* 0.087 1.516 0.130 0.033 0.371 0.711 0.081 0.680 0.497 0.091 1.187 0.235 0.138 1.920 0.055
Print media usage − 0.122 − 1.392 0.164 0.013 0.216 0.829 − 0.096 − 1.734 0.083 − 0.024 − 0.286 0.775 − 0.092 − 0.823 0.411 − 0.103 − 1.422 0.155 − 0.027 − 0.393 0.695
Sleep during the week − 0.547 − 3.207 0.001*** − 0.503 − 4.264 0.000*** − 0.201 − 1.855 0.064 0.006 0.034 0.973 − 0.324 − 1.432 0.152 − 0.308 − 2.247 0.025* − 0.474 − 3.648 0.000***
Sleep during the weekend 0.065 0.421 0.674 0.101 0.936 0.349 − 0.051 − 0.499 0.618 − 0.126 − 0.759 0.448 − 0.350 − 1.713 0.087 − 0.047 − 0.369 0.712 0.157 1.305 0.192
Exercise 0.051 0.692 0.489 − 0.048 − 0.961 0.336 − 0.058 − 1.300 0.194 − 0.007 − 0.099 0.921 − 0.021 − 0.236 0.813 0.054 0.964 0.335 0.033 0.578 0.563
Time spent outside − 0.163 − 2.210 0.027* − 0.113 − 2.257 0.024* − 0.088 − 1.981 0.048* − 0.159 − 2.199 0.028* 0.064 0.702 0.483 − 0.133 − 2.353 0.019* − 0.096 − 1.659 0.097
(B)                      
(Intercept) − 1.930 − 2.665 0.008** − 0.500 − 1.040 0.298 − 0.861 − 1.973 0.048* − 1.326 − 1.886 0.059 − 2.160 − 2.521 0.012* − 1.092 − 2.034 0.042* − 1.688 − 2.902 0.004**
Country of residence: Germany − 0.588 − 3.134 0.002** − 0.521 − 4.047 0.000*** − 0.608 − 5.534 0.000*** − 1.115 − 6.274 0.000*** − 0.452 − 1.995 0.046* 0.006 0.040 0.968 − 0.169 − 1.129 0.259
Gender: female 0.144 0.692 0.489 0.090 0.659 0.510 0.178 1.455 0.146 0.445 2.048 0.041* 0.431 1.609 0.108 − 0.271 − 1.928 0.054 0.268 1.575 0.115
Age − 0.014 − 2.019 0.044* − 0.002 − 0.395 0.693 − 0.010 − 2.786 0.005** − 0.008 − 1.291 0.197 − 0.014 − 1.819 0.069 − 0.002 − 0.499 0.618 − 0.025 − 4.555 0.000***
Highest education 0.003 0.056 0.955 − 0.061 − 1.503 0.133 0.051 1.332 0.183 − 0.050 − 0.846 0.397 − 0.073 − 1.019 0.308 − 0.067 − 1.436 0.151 0.023 0.471 0.638
Concerned about life stability 0.134 2.021 0.043* 0.201 4.365 0.000*** 0.142 3.553 0.000*** 0.087 1.330 0.183 0.215 2.786 0.005** 0.148 2.795 0.005** 0.092 1.726 0.084
Hopeful for an end of COVID19 − 0.093 − 1.309 0.190 − 0.116 − 2.297 0.022* − 0.058 − 1.350 0.177 − 0.207 − 3.021 0.003** − 0.066 − 0.755 0.450 − 0.041 − 0.710 0.478 − 0.025 − 0.446 0.656
Financial impact: yes 0.015 0.207 0.836 − 0.075 − 1.430 0.153 − 0.010 − 0.236 0.813 0.086 1.244 0.213 − 0.074 − 0.829 0.407 0.000 − 0.006 0.995 − 0.062 − 1.029 0.303
Work-changes—home office: yes 0.167 0.840 0.401 − 0.080 − 0.601 0.548 − 0.126 − 1.085 0.278 − 0.130 − 0.687 0.492 − 0.026 − 0.105 0.916 0.231 1.510 0.131 − 0.003 − 0.020 0.984
Work-changes—unpaid leave: yes 0.819 2.158 0.031* 0.255 0.845 0.398 0.128 0.445 0.657 0.240 0.597 0.551 0.342 0.649 0.517 0.634 2.064 0.039* 0.258 0.697 0.486
Work-changes—lost job: yes 0.366 1.087 0.277 0.269 1.099 0.272 − 0.059 − 0.234 0.815 − 0.778 − 1.628 0.103 0.204 0.438 0.661 0.226 0.768 0.442 0.233 0.802 0.423
Work-changes—no change: yes 0.294 1.223 0.221 − 0.186 − 1.067 0.286 0.112 0.793 0.428 − 0.029 − 0.126 0.899 0.552 2.138 0.033* 0.334 1.852 0.064 0.289 1.594 0.111
Impact on quality of family relations − 0.145 − 1.478 0.139 − 0.211 − 3.067 0.002** − 0.159 − 2.657 0.008** 0.106 1.125 0.261 − 0.177 − 1.454 0.146 0.003 0.035 0.972 0.068 0.880 0.379
Impact on quality of social relations − 0.411 − 3.968 0.000*** − 0.244 − 3.420 0.001*** − 0.102 − 1.666 0.096 − 0.233 − 2.409 0.016* − 0.180 − 1.418 0.156 − 0.377 − 4.762 0.000*** − 0.334 − 4.082 0.000***
Physical health status 0.187 2.101 0.036* 0.109 1.758 0.079 0.149 2.737 0.006** 0.189 2.214 0.027* 0.287 2.620 0.009** 0.078 1.095 0.273 0.059 0.834 0.404
Mental health status 0.567 6.257 0.000*** 0.441 7.174 0.000*** 0.298 5.608 0.000*** 0.246 2.936 0.003** 0.336 3.167 0.002** 0.356 5.247 0.000*** 0.562 7.979 0.000***
  1. *< .05; **< .01; ***< .001