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Table 1 Cohort demographics and COVID-19 exposure including impact on life; and differences between Germany and the UK

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: a comparison between Germany and the UK

   Whole sample UK Germany Chi2/Wilcox for country comparison: UK versus GER
N   858 239 541 X-squared = 118.2,
df = 1,
p value < 0.001***
Age   43.27 years (SD15.4) 39.01 years (SD16.0) 45.36 years (SD14.8) Wilcox: 48,386
p value < 0.001***
Gender Female 71.6% 73.6% 71.2% X-squared = 0.36,
df = 2,
p value = 0.8
  Male 25.4% 24.3% 25.9%  
  Diverse 0.5% 0.4% 0.6%  
  Missing 2.5% 1.7% 2.4%  
Education School leavers 0.1% 0.4% X-squared = 69.3, df = 7,
p value < 0.001***
  8 years—A-levels 14.3% 19.2% 13.1%  
  Professional college or bachelor 24.3% 31.8% 21.6%  
  Masters or higher 60.1% 47.3% 64.9%  
  Missing 1.2% 1.3% 0.4%  
Children at home (max.18 years) Yes 28.1% 21.1% 30.7% X-squared = 7.83, df = 1,
p value = 0.005**
  Missing 2.0% 1.6% 2.6%  
COVID19 exposure
Suspected infection Positive test 0.1% 0.2% X-squared = 7.25, df = 3,
p value = 0.06
  Diagnosis 1.3% 2.5% 0.7%  
  Symptoms 15.6% 18.8% 14.2%  
  No infection 82.2% 78.7% 83.9%  
  Missing 0.8% 0.9%  
Symptoms Fever 8.5% 10.0% 8.0% X-squared = 1.04,
df = 1,
p value = 0.3 (based on ‘no symptoms’)
  Cough 17.1% 21.3% 15.5%  
  Shortness of breath 9.4% 10.0% 9.8%  
  Sore throat 21.2% 23.4% 19.9%  
  Fatigue 27.4% 28.5% 27.7%  
  Lost smell/taste 2.9% 4.2% 2.2%  
  Infected eyes 3.7% 3.8% 3.5%  
  Other symptoms 6.3% 6.3% 6.7%  
  No symptoms 55.2% 51.9% 55.8%  
Contact to people with potential infection Positive test 7.8% 3.3% 9.8% X-squared = 1.14,
df = 1,
p value = 0.3 (based on ‘no contact’)
  Diagnosis 2.1% 5.4% 0.6%  
  Symptoms 12.8% 17.2% 11.7%  
  No contact 78.1% 74.9% 78.4%  
Impact on work and financial situation
Impact on work Home office 48.7% 50.6% 46.8% X-squared = 2.39,
df = 1,
p value = 0.1 (based on ‘no change’)
  Reductions of hours 7.1% 6.7% 7.4%  
  Unpaid leave 2.6% 3.4% 2.4%  
  Overtime/negative hoursa 7.7% 1.3% 11.3%  
  Lost job 3.9% 2.9% 3.7%  
  No change 16.1% 13.0% 17.4%  
Impact on family Infected 5.8 10.5% 4.4% X-squared = 38.3,
df = 1,
p value < 0.001*** (based on ‘no impact’)
  Hospitalised 1.8% 1.7% 2.0%  
  Death 1.3% 3.8% 0.4%  
  Quarantine, symptoms 15.3% 23.9% 12.2%  
  Quarantine, no symptoms 7.5% 14.6% 4.6%  
  Reduced working hours 16.7% 26.4% 12.6%  
  Lost job 6.8% 10.9% 4.4%  
  No impact 65.9% 49.0% 71.9%  
Financial impact of COVID-19 No impact 54.0% 46.0% 58.8% X-squared = 19.2,
df = 4,
p value < 0.001***
  Slight 16.4% 23.4% 12.8%  
  Moderate 13.3% 11.7% 12.8%  
  Big 12.6% 15.9% 11.7%  
  Extreme 3.3% 2.9% 3.3%  
  Missing 0.5% 0.7%  
Not enough money for food Yes 2.9% 2.9% 3.1% X-squared = 0.03,
df = 1,
p value = 0.8
  Missing 1.1% 1.0% 1.0%  
Personal judgement of the situation
Are the restrictions stressful? Not at all 13.5% 11.3% 14.8% X-squared = 6.3,
df = 4,
p value = 0.2
  Slightly 26.8% 29.3% 26.3%  
  Moderately 27.6% 25.5% 28.1%  
  Very 20.5% 24.3% 18.7%  
  Extremely 11.3% 9.2% 12.2%  
  Missing 0.2% 0.4%  
How concerned are you about your life stability? Not at all 34.6% 46.4% 30.5% X-squared = 21.7,df = 4, p value < 0.001***
  Slightly 23.4% 22.2% 23.8%  
  Moderately 19.1% 14.2% 21.3%  
  Very 15.4% 10.9% 17.2%  
  Extremely 6.8% 5.0% 6.8%  
  Missing 0.7% 1.3% 0.4%  
How hopeful are you of a soon end of the pandemic in your region of residence? Not at all 17.1% 14.2% 17.9% X-squared = 28.824,
df = 4, p value < 0.001***
  Slightly 32.1% 27.6% 34.9%  
  Moderately 28.6% 25.2% 30.1%  
  Very 14.7% 19.7% 12.8%  
  Extremely 7.6% 13.0% 4.3%  
Does the pandemic have any positive impact on your personal life? No 35.0% 31.0% 36.4% X-squared = 14.225, df = 2, p value < 0.001***
  Few 35.6% 29.3% 37.7%  
  Some 29.1% 38.9% 25.9%  
  Missing 0.4% 0.8%  
Mental and physical health status
Self-rated mental health, before COVID-19 Excellent 15.0% 14.2% 15.3% X-squared = 34.938,
df = 4,
p value < 0.001****
  Very good 32.4% 21.8% 37.0%  
  Good 28.7% 30.1% 28.3%  
  Fair 16.4% 21.3% 14.6%  
  Poor 5.8% 11.3% 3.3%  
  Missing 1.6% 1.3% 1.5%  
Regular treatment for mental illness, before pandemic Yes 13.3% 17.6% 10.1% X-squared = 8.7436,
df = 1,
p value = 0.003**
  Missing 11.4% 13.4% 7.2%  
Continuation of treatment during pandemic More 2.3% 3.6% 1.0% X-squared = 5.3799,
df = 2,
p value = 0.07
  Less 12.5% 13.6% 11.5%  
  Same 85.3% 82.8% 87.8%  
Self-rated physical health, before pandemic Excellent 12.1% 13.0% 11.3% X-squared = 1.5322,
df = 4,
p value = 0.8
  Very good 33.1% 32.2% 33.3%  
  Good 33.9% 31.8% 35.7%  
  Fair 16.3% 17.2% 15.5%  
  Poor 3.2% 3.8% 3.3%  
  Missing 1.4% 2.1% 1.0%  
Regular treatment for physical illness, before pandemic Yes 19.5% 18.4% 20.2% X-squared = 0.0008792,
df = 1,
p value = 1
  Missing 11.6% 14.6% 7.0%  
Continuation of treatment during pandemic More 1.0% 1.8% X-squared = 5.7522,
df = 2,
p value = 0.056
  Less 14.1% 14.3% 14.4%  
  Same 85.0% 83.9% 85.6%  
  1. *< .05; **< .01; ***< .001;
  2. aOvertime/negative hours, is a concept uncommon in the UK