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Table 3 Multiple regression showing association of self-reported vision difficulty and vision loss with psychological distressa

From: Vision loss, vision difficulty and psychological distress in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

  Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d Model 4e
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Self-reported myopia
None Ref Ref Ref Ref
Mild 1.9 1.3–2.7 1.9 1.3–2.7 1.7 1.2–2.5 1.9 1.3–2.7
Moderate 2.6 1.7–3.9 2.7 1.8–4.0 2.3 1.5–3.4 2.4 1.6–3.7
Severe/extreme/unable 4.2 2.2–7.7 3.9 2.1–7.2 3.2 1.6–6.3 3.6 1.8–7.3
Self-reported hyperopia
None Ref Ref Ref Ref
Mild 1.8 1.3–2.7 1.8 1.3–2.5 1.6 1.1–2.3 1.7 1.2–2.5
Moderate 2.4 1.6–3.7 2.5 1.6–4.0 2.2 1.3–3.5 2.4 1.5–3.8
Severe/extreme/unable 3.7 2.2–6.4 3.8 2.1–6.8 3.3 1.7–6.2 3.5 1.8–6.8
Clinician assessed vision loss
Normal Ref
Loss of vision 1.1 0.8–1.5 1.1 0.8–1.5 1 0.8–1.4 1 0.7–1.4
  1. aDefined as a score of 20 or more on the Kessler Psychological Distress scale. bAdjusted for age, sex, and population group. cModel 1 plus education, wealth quintile and urban/rural residence. dModel 2 plus tobacco smoking status, hazardous alcohol drinking, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease and lifetime experience of traumatic event(s). eModel 3 plus use of a visual aid and years since last eye examination
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval