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Table 1 Description of the sample

From: Vision loss, vision difficulty and psychological distress in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

  % 95% CI Frequency
Total 100   6859
Demographic characteristics  
Sex  
 Males 39.2 37.6–40.8 2415
 Females 60.8 59.2–62.4 4444
Age (Mean, SE) 38.4 0.35  
 15–44 years 66.3 64.5–68.0 4062
 45–54 years 13.8 12.6–15.0 1082
 55–64 years 10.3 9.3–11.4 908
 ≥ 65 years 9.7 8.5–11.1 807
Population group  
 African 83.6 80.5–86.3 4886
 White 4.3 2.8–6.3 142
 Coloured (Mixed-race) 10.7 8.6–13.2 1471
 Indian 1.5 1.0–2.1 329
Socioeconomic characteristics  
Highest Education
 No formal schooling/Gr 0–7 30.4 28.0–32.9 2189
 Grade 8–12 (or equivalent) 62.5 60.1–64.8 3813
 Higher education 7.1 5.7–8.9 338
Wealth index  
 Lowest (1) 24.2 20.6–28.2 1347
 2 23.2 20.7–25.9 1282
 3 22.5 19.9–25.4 1274
 4 16.5 14.1–19.1 1029
 Highest (5) 13.5 10.7–16.9 688
Residence  
 Rural 44.5 38.6–50.6 2977
 Urban 55.5 49.4–61.4 4465
Health status variables  
Tobacco smoking
 Never smoker 79.6 77.8–81.2 5208
 Ex-smoker 4.3 3.6–5.1 268
 Current smoker 16.2 14.6–17.8 1280
Hazardous alcohol use 18.6 16.8–20.5 1215
Diabetes 6.5 5.8–7.3 519
Hypertension 32.7 30.9–34.5 2552
Cardiac disease 10.3 9.2–11.5 688
Lifetime experience of ≥ 1 traumatic event 22.5 19.9–25.3 1327
Eye care variables  
Uses eye glasses or contact lenses 17.9 15.9–20.1 1217
Years since eyes examined    
 < 1 year 6.1 4.9–7.6 354
 1–2 years 8.8 7.5–10.2 592
 3–5 years 4.4 3.7–5.2 323
 > 5 years 3.3 2.7–4.0 220
 Never 62.9 59.8–65.8 4134
 Don't know 14.5 12.4–17.0 1025
Self-reported distance visual impairment  
 None 80.3 78.6–81.9 5209
 Mild 9.1 8.2–10.2 644
 Moderate 7 6.2–7.9 482
 Severe/Extreme/unable 3.5 2.8–4.4 252
Self-reported near visual impairment  
 None 80.2 78.7–81.8 5206
 Mild 10 9.0–11.1 708
 Moderate 6.3 5.5–7.3 428
 Severe/Extreme/unable 3.4 2.8–4.2 245
Clinician assessed vision loss 10.7 9.2–12.3 835
  1. %, percentage of frequency; CI, confidence interval