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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of: (A) discovery sample; (B) validation clinical sample; (C) validation familial risk sampl

From: Machine learning-based ability to classify psychosis and early stages of disease through parenting and attachment-related variables is associated with social cognition

  All subjects (mean ± SD) HC
(mean ± SD)
PSY
(mean ± SD)
HC vs. PSY
p value
A. Discovery sample
N 105 71 34 n.a
Gender Ratio (M/F) 58/47 35/36 23/11 0.119
Age 31.96 ± 10.14 28.82 ± 6.43 38.53 ± 13.05  < 0.001*
Socio-economic Status 40.58 ± 17.01 40.77 ± 17.61 40.18 ± 15.94 0.867
WAIS IQ 105.77 ± 15.97 111.04 ± 10.93 94.76 ± 19.13  < 0.001*
Premorbid IQ 114.27 ± 5.62 116.40 ± 2.69 109.80 ± 7.33  < 0.001*
GAF total score 51.79 ± 15.72 n.a 51.79 ± 15.72 n.a
Chlorpromazine eq 174.60 ± 110.13 n.a 174.60 ± 110.13 n.a
  All subjects (mean ± SD) HC
(mean ± SD)
ESD
(mean ± SD)
HC vs. ESD
p value
B. Validation clinical sample
N 90 60 30 n.a
Gender ratio (M/F) 35/55 17/43 18/12 0.007*
Age 23.04 ± 6.33 22.95 ± 6.27 23.23 ± 6.56 0.843
Socio-Economic Status 42.62 ± 14.50 43.81 ± 14.78 40.25 ± 13.87 0.275
WAIS IQ 105.41 ± 11.26 106.60 ± 10.44 103.03 ± 12.61 0.158
Premorbid IQ 114.28 ± 3.55 115.33 ± 2.49 112.19 ± 4.39 0.300
GAF total score 64.04 ± 15.03 n.a 64.22 ± 15.34 n.a
Chlorpromazine eq 91.67 ± 46.87 n.a 95.45 ± 47.19 n.a
  All subjects (mean ± SD) HC
(mean ± SD)
FHR
(mean ± SD)
HC vs. FHR
p value
C. Validation familial risk sample
N 39 26 13 n.a
Gender Ratio (M/F) 15/24 10/16 5/8 0.727
Age 25.41 ± 7.94 24 ± 5.12 28.23 ± 11.49 0.226
Socio-Economic Status 40.68 ± 13.50 38.19 ± 14.13 45.65 ± 10.99 0.105
WAIS IQ 108.13 ± 12.73 107.50 ± 13.71 109.38 ± 10.90 0.669
Premorbid IQ 115.70 ± 3.29 114.82 ± 3.01 117.46 ± 3.22 0.016*
  1. Table 1D reports statistical comparisons between groups. Significant between-groups differences (p < 0.05) are marked with (*)
  2. SD: Standard Deviation; HC: Healthy Controls; PSY = Patients with Psychosis; ESD = Early Stages of Disease; FHR = familial high-risk individuals M/F: Male/Female; IQ: Intelligence Quotient; PANSS: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale; YMRS: Young Mania Rating Scale; n.a. = not assessed