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Table 3 Multiple linear regression model with subtypes of rumination explaining perceived stress, after controlling for gender, age, headache status and headache disability

From: Perceived stress in the time of COVID-19: the association with brooding and COVID-related rumination in adults with and without migraine

Model Predictors β p R2
1 Gender  − .029 .762 .012
Age  − .067 .458
Migraine/HC  − .080 .459
MIDAS .034 .737
2 Gender  − .091 .315 .138
Age  − .036 .668
Migraine/HC  − 0.45 .656
MIDAS .032 .734
CRS .364  < .001
3 Gender  − .049 .548 .308
Age .004 .957
Migraine/HC .034 .711
MIDAS .117 .182
CRS .260 .001
RRS brooding .448  < .001
RRS reflection  − .050 .536
4 Gender  − .039 .644 .313
Age .009 .909
Migraine/HC .042 .650
MIDAS .125 .155
CRS .255 .002
RRS brooding .373 .002
RRS reflection  − .053 .512
RRS brooding * Migraine/HC .105 .365
  1. n = 132
  2. RRS Ruminative Response Scale, CRS COVID-related Rumination Scale, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, MIDAS Migraine Disability Assessment