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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of age, assessed measures, and group differences between participants with and without migraine

From: Perceived stress in the time of COVID-19: the association with brooding and COVID-related rumination in adults with and without migraine

Scales Total sample
Mean (SD)
n = 132
Migraine group
Mean (SD)
n = 70
HC group
Mean (SD)
n = 62
Mann–Whitney U p
Age 30.76 (7.10) 31.86 (7.28) 29.48 (6.73) 2597 .05
MIDAS 5.81 (9.18) 9.91 (10.70) 1.18 (3.23) 3803  < .001
RRS brooding 10.13 (2.90) 10.33 (2.99) 9.90 (2.81) 2274 .53
RRS reflection 11.79 (2.93) 11.78 (3.08) 11.81 (2.77) 2118 .92
CRS 6.20 (2.71) 6.56 (3.01) 5.81 (2.28) 2402 .28
PSS-4 5.64 (2.99) 5.84 (3.08) 5.41 (2.90) 2350 .41
  1. MIDAS Migraine Disability Assessment, RRS Ruminative Response Scale, CRS COVID-related Rumination Scale, PSS-4 Perceived Stress Scale, SD standard deviation