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Table 4 Inter-group and intra-group comparison of sleep quality scores of patients with thalassemia major

From: Effects of a positive thinking program on hope and sleep quality in Iranian patients with thalassemia: a randomized clinical trial

Time Before intervention Immediately after intervention One month after the intervention P-value*
Variable Group Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Total sleep quality Experimental 8.7 3.7 5.3 2.0 4.2 2.1  < 0.001
Control 7.2 3.0 6.9 2.3 7.0 3.3 0.726
P value** 0.084 0.004***  < 0.001****  
Subjective sleep quality Experimental 1.6 0.84 1.03 0.4 0.70 0.46  < 0.001
Control 1.25 0.71 1.17 0.5 1.17 0.5 0.545
P value** 0.063 0.225 0.001  
Sleep latency Experimental 2.0 1.0 1.38 0.88 1.12 0.76  < 0.001
Control 1.61 0.81 1.74 0.71 1.84 0.9 0.183
P value** 0.066 0.109 0.001  
Sleep duration Experimental 0.96 1.07 0.41 0.56 0.32 0.59 0.001
Control 0.51 0.82 0.51 0.75 0.76 0.9 0.155
P value** 0.117 0.831 0.026  
Sleep efficiency Experimental 0.77 1.14 0.45 0.72 0.19 0.47 0.046
Control 0.92 1.15 0.64 0.90 0.79 0.97 0.326
P value** 0.483 0.457 0.002  
Sleep disturbances Experimental 1.54 0.50 1.09 0.30 1.06 0.35  < 0.001
Control 1.50 0.55 1.5 0.50 1.44 0.60 0.850
P value** 0.623 0.001 0.001  
Use of sleep medication Experimental 0.29 0.73 0.09 0.30 0.19 0.60 0.076
Control 0.3 0.76 0.15 0.43 0.28 0.6 0.206
P value** 0.864 0.660 0.402  
Daytime dysfunction Experimental 1.51 0.81 0.87 0.49 0.64 0.66  < 0.001
Control 0.89 0.71 1.15 0.53 0.97 0.62 0.104
P value** 0.003 0.029 0.019  
  1. *Friedman Test
  2. **Mann–Whitney U Test
  3. ***Medium effect size
  4. ****Large effect size