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Table 4 The mediating effect of youth’s sports’ values on the link between sports-related family co-activities and youth’s sports-participation behaviors

From: Immigrant and Swedish adolescents’ involvement in organized sports activities: an expectancy-value approach

     95% CI
  B SE t/z LL UL
Outcome: Sports participation      
 Direct effects      
  Co-activities → Sports’ values .29 .04 6.98*** .21 .37
  Co-activities → Sports participation .47 .16 2.87** .15 .78
  Sports’ values → Sports participation .82 .19 4.36*** .45 1.18
 Indirect effect      
  Co-activities → Sports’ values → Sports participation .24 .07   .12 .42
Outcome: Sports intensity      
 Direct effects      
  Co-activities → Sports’ values .24 .05 4.63*** .14 .34
  Co-activities → Sports intensity .84 .24 3.47*** .36 1.31
  Sports’ values → Sports intensity 1.07 .27 3.93*** .53 1.61
 Indirect effect      
  Co-activities → Sports’ values → Sports intensity .25 .10   .08 .46
Outcome: Sports continuation      
 Direct effects      
  Co-activities → Sports’ values .34 .04 7.64*** .25 .42
  Co-activities → Sports continuation .22 .18 1.09 -.16 .55
  Sports’ values → Sports continuation .57 .20 2.90** .18 .95
 Indirect effect      
  Co-activities → Sports’ values → Sports continuation .19 .08   .06 .38
  1. * = p < .05; ** = p < .01; *** = p < .001; CI = confidence interval; LL = lower limit; UL upper limit. Unstandardized beta coefficients (B), 95% ordinary least squares CI for B, and 95% bootstrap CI for the indirect effects. The following variables were entered as covariates: SES, age, gender, immigrant background, and parents’ role-modeling behaviors. We also controlled for T1 sports participation when looking at T2 sports participation, and T1 sports intensity when looking at T2 sports intensity