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Table 1 Differences between immigrant and Nordic youth across the sports-participation dimensions and the parenting-behavior domain

From: Immigrant and Swedish adolescents’ involvement in organized sports activities: an expectancy-value approach

  Nordic Immigrant    
Variable M/% (SD) M/% (SD) F/χ2 p η2/ Cramer's V
Parents’ employee status 1.92 (.30) 1.29 (.78) 198.42 .001 .26
Age 14.00 (.21) 14.22 (.54) 45.06 .001 .08
Gender 53.3% 50.7% .13 .132 .02
Role modeling 1.74 (1.30) 1.07 (1.31) 28.63 .001 .05
Sports-related co-activities 2.41 (1.14) 2.40 (1.03) .01 .932 .00
Youth’s attainment values T1 2.66 (1.11) 2.58 (1.09) .61 .435 .00
Youth’s attainment values T2 2.50 (1.09) 2.33 (1.01) 2.8 .094 .01
Participation in sports T1 73% 57.2% 12.97 .001 .15
Participation in sports T2 70.6% 39.6% 33.06 .001 .28
Sports intensity T1 9.31 (4.11) 8.77 (4.14) 1.09 .298 .00
Sports intensity T2 9.75 (6.00) 6.27 (5.94) 15.87 .001 .05
Continued sports participation 92.8% 71.3% 29.00 .001 .28
  1. Partial eta-square was used as an effect-size indicator but was only estimated for the continuous and interval measures
  2. Cramer's V effect sizes were estimated for the dichotomous variables (for which percentages rather than means and standard deviations are presented)