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Table 1 Demographic variables and baseline scores of psychological tests

From: Maternal overprotection predicts consistent improvement of self-compassion during mindfulness-based intervention and existential approach: a secondary analysis of the EXMIND study

  A group
(n = 15)
B group
(n = 23)
C group
(n = 20)
Statistic p value Post-hoc comparison
Age 45.2 (14.7) 46.4 (12.8) 53.9 (10.8) F = 2.61 0.08  
Sex     χ2 = 1.12 0.57  
 Male 4 (27%) 3 (13%) 4 (20%)    
 Female 11 (73%) 20 (87%) 16 (80%)    
TEMPS-A       
 Depressive 7.1 (3.7) 8.6 (3.5) 8.8 (3.9) F = 0.92 0.41  
 Cyclothymic 3.4 (2.8) 6.1 (4.7) 5.5 (5.2) F = 1.55 0.22  
 Hyperthymic 6.9 (4.0) 5.5 (3.6) 6.3 (4.0) F = 0.58 0.56  
 Irritable 2.2 (2.3) 3.4 (3.7) 3.3 (3.0) F = 0.62 0.54  
 Anxious 6.7 (6.0) 7.1 (6.0) 6.6 (4.8) F = 0.06 0.94  
TCI       
 Novelty Seeking 19.9 (3.8) 21.4 (5.6) 21.9 (4.2) F = 0.85 0.43  
 Harm Avoidance 18.3 (8.0) 18.3 (8.2) 18.3 (5.7) F = 0.00 1.00  
 Reward Dependence 14.5 (3.5) 15.1 (3.3) 15.2 (4.8) F = 0.16 0.85  
 Persistence 4.6 (2.5) 4.5 (1.7) 4.5 (2.0) F = 0.02 0.98  
 Self-Directedness 25.3 (11.6) 28.9 (7.6) 27.6 (8.7) F = 0.72 0.49  
 Cooperativeness 27.0 (7.7) 29.4 (3.8) 26.2 (7.4) F = 1.48 0.24  
 Self-Transcendence 13.5 (4.9) 12.9 (6.2) 15.0 (6.0) F = 0.68 0.51  
MMSE 29.3 (0.8) 29.6 (0.6) 29.3 (0.7) F = 0.89 0.42  
IQ (JART) 114.5 (5.6) 107.4 (7.0) 109.7 (6.9) F = 5.32 0.01 A > Ba
YMRS 0.4 (0.7) 0.2 (0.6) 0.3 (0.8) F = 0.33 0.72  
HRSD 1.3 (2.3) 2.3 (2.4) 2.6 (2.9) F = 1.13 0.33  
PBI       
 Paternal Care 20.6 (8.7) 22.6 (7.8) 21.3 (7.4) F = 0.28 0.76  
 Paternal overprotection 10.4 (6.9) 10.6 (5.8) 12.3 (6.6) F = 0.49 0.61  
 Maternal Care 26.5 (6.6) 24.3 (5.7) 23.9 (7.5) F = 0.71 0.50  
 Maternal overprotection 10.6 (6.8) 11.3 (7.4) 17.0 (7.9) F = 4.32 0.02 A,B < Cb
T-score (PIL) 47.5 (10.5) 48.1 (8.7) 50.3 (11.4) F = 0.38 0.69  
  1. Data are mean (SD) or number (%) unless otherwise indicated
  2. A group: Participants who responded positively to MBI, but negatively to the existential approach. B group: Participants who responded negatively to MBI, but positively to the existential approach. C group: Participants who responded positively to both MBI and existential approach
  3. aA vs. B: p = 0.01, A vs. C: p = 0.09, B vs. C: p = 0.51
  4. bA vs. B: p = 0.96, A vs. C: p = 0.04, B vs. C: p = 0.04
  5. Abbreviations: TEMPS-A, Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Auto-questionnaire; TCI, Temperament and Character Inventory; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; IQ, Intelligence Quotient; JART, Japanese Adult Reading Test; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale; HRSD, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; PBI, Parental Bonding Instrument; PIL, Purpose in Life Test