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Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of the Study Participants at Baseline (N = 326)

From: The value of hope: development and validation of a contextual measure of hope among people living with HIV in urban Tanzania a mixed methods exploratory sequential study

CharacteristicSample/n (%)Mean/score (SD)Range
Age in years 39.0 (10.1)18–75
Sex: Women192 (59)  
Employment status
 Employed/self-employed/housewife/student283 (87)  
 Not employed43 (13)  
Years in School
 Primary School 6.8 (0.8)2–8
 Secondary School 4.4 (1.8)2–8
 Non-degree/Collage 3.0 (1.2)1–4
 Degree/University 3.1 (2.0)1–6
General HIV knowledge 3.6 (3.9)1–8
Knowledge about ART 2.8 (0.6)1–4
Hope 2.6 (0.5)1–4
Psychosocial health:
aDepression scores 8.0 (5.6)0–27
 Self-esteem 3.1 (0.6)1–4
 Stigma 3.6 (1.0)1–5
bPerceived social support 2.3 (0.5)1–3
 Local scale of stress scores (msongo) 18.4 (4.3)0–20
Local scale of depression scores (sonona) 38.1 (6.0)0–64
Health seeking behavioral
 Adherence to medication 1.7 (0.7)1–3
 Clinic visits 12.4 (4.6)1–38
Clinical outcomes
 Hemoglobin(g/dl) 11.2 (2.0)5–16
 CD4+ T cell (cells/mm3) 338.6 (188.6)0–1212
 Weight (kg) 59.9 (10.8)30–105
  1. aDepression scores were measured by PHQ9 tool >/=9 is depression. Scores < 9 no mild or no depression
  2. bPerceived social support was measured by (name of the scale) scale, whereby 1 = perceived the highest support, 4 perceived no support