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Table 4 Association between independent variables and binary mental health outcomes – univariate analyses (N = 437)a

From: Swipe-based dating applications use and its association with mental health outcomes: a cross-sectional study

  Psychological Distress Crude OR (95% CI)P-valueAnxiety Crude OR (95% CI)P-valueDepression Crude OR (95% CI)P-valueSelf-Esteem Crude OR (95% CI)P-value
DemographicsAgeN = 436 N = 435 N = 436 N = 429 
0.90 (0.84–0.97)0.0030.95 (0.92–0.98)0.0020.96 (0.92–0.99)0.0220.93 2(0.82–0.98)0.003
AgeN = 4360.005N = 4350.010N = 4360.129N = 4290.028
 18–236.26 (1.89–20.81)0.0032.69 (1.38–5.25)0.0041.90 (0.88–4.10)0.1033.35 (1.37–8.16)0.008
 24–293.33 (0.88–12.70)0.0781.69 (0.77–3.71)0.1951.04 (0.40–2.75)0.9302.55 (0.94–6.94)0.066
 30+REF REF REF REF 
GenderN = 433 N = 432 N = 433 N = 426 
 MaleREF REF REF REF 
 Female1.84 (0.96–3.54)0.0682.02 (1.22–3.34)0.0062.23 (1.17–4.23)0.0152.01 (1.10–3.65)0.022
Sexual OrientationN = 437 N = 436 N = 437 N = 430 
 HeterosexualREF REF REF REF 
 LGBTQI+3.54 (1.78–7.02)< 0.0012.28 (1.25–4.15)0.0072.70 (1.36–5.35)0.0052.11 (1.06–4.21)0.035
Relationship StatusN = 4320.004N = 4310.541N = 4320.136N = 4260.055
 Single & not datingREF REF REF REF 
 Dating0.98 (0.43–2.19)0.9510.65 (0.30–1.42)0.2781.08 (0.48–2.45)0.8500.85 (0.38–1.89)0.683
 In an Exclusive relationship0.34 (0.17–0.67)0.0020.85 (0.51–1.41)0.5280.57 (0.30–1.07)0.0810.49 (0.27–0.89)0.018
EmploymentN = 4360.100N = 4350.944N = 4360.435N = 4290.818
 Not employed2.36 (1.07–5.21)0.0341.11 (0.60–2.03)0.7461.47 (0.69–3.16)0.3221.26 (0.62–2.54)0.527
 0–30 h per week1.79 (0.85–3.76)0.1271.07 (0.63–1.81)0.8121.52 (0.78–2.98)0.2221.12 (0.60–2.10)0.727
  > 30 h per weekREF REF REF REF 
SBDA User StatusUser StatusN = 437 N = 436 N = 437 N = 430 
 Non-UserREF REF REF REF 
 User3.13 (1.71–5.73)< 0.0011.32 (0.81–2.16)0.2682.31 (1.29–4.13)0.0051.29 (0.72–2.28)0.391
SBDA UseFrequency of UseN = 4370.003N = 4360.125N = 4370.010N = 4300.369
 NeverREF REF REF REF 
 Less than once a week2.61 (1.04–6.55)0.0412.30 (1.23–4.68)0.0221.69 (0.65–4.35)0.2810.77 (0.26–2.27)0.629
 Once a week or more2.94 (1.35–6.44)0.0070.87 (0.42–1.83)0.7171.79 (0.80–4.12)0.1581.60 (0.76–3.35)0.212
 Daily3.79 (1.54–9.30)0.0041.06 (0.44–2.56)0.8923.98 (1.73–9.14)0.0011.74 (0.71–4.25)0.228
Duration of UseN = 4360.001N = 4350.544N = 4360.006N = 4290.510
 NeverREF REF REF REF 
  ≤ 12 months2.60 (1.20–5.66)0.0161.20 (0.62–2.31)0.5951.59 (0.71–3.55)0.2561.26 (0.59–2.69)0.545
 More than a year3.55 (1.74–7.25)0.0011.39 (0.75–2.59)0.2923.00 (1.52–5.91)0.0021.49 (0.73–3.03)0.273
Number of people met face-to-faceN = 2320.340N = 2310.628N = 2320.246N = 2290.129
 0REF REF REF REF 
 1–22.23 (0.66–7.56)0.1991.74 (0.73–4.15)0.2162.77 (0.84–9.18)0.0953.36 (1.04–10.93)0.044
 3–52.13 (0.60–7.56)0.2421.47 (0.59–3.69)0.4122.45 (0.71–8.51)0.1582.23 (0.63–7.91)0.216
  > 53.06 (0.92–10.16)0.0671.66 (0.68–4.04)0.2643.39 (1.03–11.14)0.0443.81 (1.17–12.44)0.027
Number of serious relationshipsN = 232 N = 231 N = 232 N = 229 
 NoneREF REF REF REF 
 One or more1.12 (0.54–2.36)0.7581.06 (0.58–1.94)0.8481.34 (0.67–2.71)0.4121.33 (0.67–2.65)0.418
Self-reported impact on self esteemN = 2320.391N = 2310.864N = 2320.428N = 2290.556
 Positive1.26 (0.49–3.24)0.6251.22 (0.60–2.47)0.5911.31 (0.54–3.19)0.5550.85 (0.36–1.96)0.697
 No impactREF REF REF REF 
 Negative1.90 (0.73–4.92)0.1881.10 (0.51–2.40)0.8061.82 (0.73–4.54)0.1991.33 (0.56–3.13)0.518
  1. a OR Odds ratio, REF reference category
  2. p value for a significant result