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Table 10 Scoring directions of TFS-I

From: Validation study of the Italian version of Temporal Focus Scale: psychometric properties and convergent validity

Factor Low Medium High M DS SE SK SE KU SE
Total sample (N = 1458)
 PF 4–11 12–16 17–28 14.80 3.28 .12 .54 .09 − .56 .18
 FF 3–10 11–15 16–21 13.50 3.54 .13 .28 .09 − .61 .18
 CF 3–12 13–16 17–21 15.33 3.08 .11 − .07 .09 -.52 .18
Males (N = 478)
 PF 4–11 12–15 16–28 14.32 3.33 .22 .65 .16 − .24 .31
 FF 3–9 10–14 15–21 12.87 3.62 .23 .48 .16 − .39 .31
 CF 3–12 13–16 17–21 15.19 3.15 .20 .10 .16 − .61 .31
Females (N = 980)
 PF 4–11 12–17 18–28 15.03 3.24 .15 .51 .11 − .69 .22
 FF 3–10 11–15 16–21 13.81 3.46 .16 .21 .11 − .65 .22
 CF 3–12 13–16 17–21 15.40 3.05 .14 − .16 .11 − .44 .22
  1. The score ranges (low, medium, high) correspond to the percentiles below 25, 25–75, above 75
  2. PF past focus, FF future focus, CF current focus, SE standard error, SK skeweness, KU kurtosis