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Table 2 Associations between physical injury prevalence, circumstances, and causes of most serious physical injury in the past 12 months and PTSD and depressive symptoms (N = 18,382)

From: Associations of serious physical injuries with posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional survey among university students in 26 countries

Variable (#missing cases) Response Sample PTSD symptoms Nagelkerke R square Depressive symptoms Nagelkerke R square
N (%) AOR (95% CI)1 AOR (95% CI)1
Annual injury prevalence       
Most serious injury in the past 12 months (#0) No 13,834 (75.3) 1 (Reference) 0.04 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 4548 (24.7) 1.35 (1.18, 1.56)***   1.49 (1.32, 1.67)***  
What were you doing when the most serious injury happened?       
Playing or training for a sport (#0) No 17,200 (93.6) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 1182 (6.4) 0.92 (0.74, 1.14)   1.09 (0.91, 1.30)  
Walking or running, but not as part of playing or training for a sport (#1) No 17,908 (97.4) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 473 (2.6) 1.46 (1.03, 2.07)*   1.62 (1.25, 2.08)***  
Riding a bicycle, scooter (#1) No 18,215 (99.1) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 166 (0.9) 2.11 (1.30, 3.43)**   2.28 (1.41, 3.68)**  
Riding a motor cycle (#1) No 18,039 (98.1) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 342 (1.9) 1.10 (0.79, 1.53)   0.61 (0.26, 1.40)  
Riding or driving in a car or other motor vehicle (#1) No 18,208 (99.1) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 173 (0.9) 1.43 (0.90, 2.28)   1.75 (1.11, 2.78)*  
Doing any paid or unpaid work, including housework, yard work, or cooking (#1) No 17,992 (97.9) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 389 (2.1) 1.68 (1.38, 2.05)***   1.89 (1.49, 2.40)***  
Nothing (#1) No 17,220 (93.7) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 1161 (6.3) 1.13 (0.81, 1.59)   1.11 (0.87, 1.41)  
Something else (#1) No 17,720 (96.4) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 661 (3.6) 1.75 (1.43, 2.15)***   1.51 (1.22, 1.88)***  
What was the major cause of the most serious injury       
I was in a motor vehicle accident or hit by a motor vehicle (#108) No 17,992 (98.5) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 282 (1.5) 1.39 (0.99, 1.96)   1.37 (0.75, 2.50)  
I was on a motor cycle (#108) No 17,949 (98.2) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 325 (1.8) 1.38 (0.92, 2.07)   0.92 (0.42, 2.03)  
I fell (#108) No 17,166 (93.9) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 1108 (6.1) 1.37 (1.15, 1.64)***   1.37 (1.14, 1.04)**  
Something fell on me or hit me (#108) No 17,963 (98.3) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 311 (1.7) 1.35 (0.91, 2.02)   1.60 (1.16, 2.19)**  
I was fighting with someone (#108) No 18,114 (99.1) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 160 (0.9) 1.76 (1.17, 2.66)**   2.01 (1.30, 3.12)**  
I was attacked, assaulted, or abused by someone (#108) No 18,196 (99.6) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 78 (0.4) 2.65 (1.77, 3.98)***   2.53 (1.44, 4.47)**  
I was in a fire or too near a flame or something hot (#108) No 18,184 (99.5) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 90 (0.5) 2.20 (1.36, 3.56)**   1.48 (0.94, 2.32)  
Animal bite (#108) No 18,158 (99.4) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 116 (0.6) 1.05 (0.59, 1.87)   1.20 (0.53, 2.73)  
Something else caused my injury (#108) No 17,080 (93.5) 1 (Reference) 0.03 1 (Reference) 0.03
  Yes 1194 (6.5) 1.40 (1.17, 1.69)***   1.44 (1.21, 1.72)***  
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; adjusted for age, sex, wealth status, country, social support and heavy alcohol use;
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001