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Table 4 Factors associated with psychological distress during COVID-19

From: Self-reported psychological distress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal: findings from an online survey

Background characteristics At least one symptom Two or more symptoms
Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Sex     
 Male 0.79* (0.66–0.96) 0.80* (0.65–0.99) 0.81* (0.67–0.99) 0.81 (0.65–1.02)
 Age 0.98*** (0.97–0.99) 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.98*** (0.97–0.99) 1.00 (0.98–1.01)
Marital status     
 Unmarried     
 Married 0.81* (0.67–0.98) 1.05 (0.81–1.36) 0.76** (0.62–0.92) 0.96 (0.73–1.26)
Children under 2 years and pregnancy in the household     
 Neither     
 Pregnancy only 0.95 (0.65–1.38) 0.88 (0.59–1.32) 1.06 (0.71–1.58) 0.99 (0.64–1.52)
 Children under 2 years only 1.11 (0.88–1.40) 1.00 (0.77–1.29) 1.18 (0.92–1.51) 1.07 (0.81–1.40)
 Pregnancy and children under 2 years 1.23 (0.87–1.74) 1.18 (0.81–1.71) 1.00 (0.69–1.45) 0.92 (0.62–1.38)
Current residence     
 Own house     
 Rented room/house 1.54*** (1.28–1.85) 1.56*** (1.28–1.91) 1.50*** (1.24–1.82) 1.54*** (1.24–1.90)
Occupation     
 Agriculture/labour/household work     
 Service 0.37*** (0.26–0.52) 0.58** (0.40–0.85) 0.36*** (0.26–0.51) 0.61** (0.42–0.87)
 Business 0.42*** (0.27–0.65) 0.68 (0.43–1.08) 0.50*** (0.32–0.76) 0.89 (0.56–1.42)
 Health worker 0.29*** (0.20–0.42) 0.42*** (0.28–0.62) 0.30*** (0.20–0.43) 0.45*** (0.30–0.68)
 Student 0.70 (0.47–1.03) 0.74 (0.48–1.14) 0.78 (0.54–1.13) 0.80 (0.53–1.23)
 Other 0.57** (0.38–0.84) 0.83 (0.54–1.26) 0.61** (0.41–0.89) 0.90** (0.59–1.36)
Family monthly income     
 Less than 10,000     
 10,000–20,000 0.65** (0.47–0.91) 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.56*** (0.41–0.76) 0.60** (0.43–0.83)
 20,001–50,000 0.32*** (0.24–0.44) 0.42*** (0.30–0.59) 0.26*** (0.19–0.35) 0.34*** (0.24–0.47)
 Above 50,000 0.22*** (0.16–0.30) 0.29*** (0.20–0.41) 0.19*** (0.14–0.27) 0.25*** (0.18–0.36)
Province     
 Province 1     
 Province 2 1.71** (1.09–2.68) 1.80* (1.12–2.89) 1.71* (1.10–2.66) 1.79* (1.12–2.87)
 Bagmati Province (only Capital city) 0.83 (0.60–1.16) 0.88 (0.59–1.31) 0.85 (0.60–1.19) 0.97 (0.64–1.49)
 Bagmati Province (excluding Capital city) 0.59* (0.39–0.91) 0.62* (0.39–0.98) 0.53** (0.33–0.84) 0.57* (0.34–0.94)
 Gandaki Province 0.76 (0.51–1.13) 0.83 (0.53–1.30) 0.58* (0.38–0.90) 0.68 (0.41–0.11)
 Province 5 0.71 (0.48–1.07) 0.80 (0.53–1.22) 0.71 (0.46–1.09) 0.81 (0.51–1.28)
 Karnali Province 1.00 (0.65–1.54) 1.03 (0.63–1.68) 1.08 (0.69–1.68) 1.21 (0.72–1.02)
 Sudurpashchim Province 0.98 (0.64–1.48) 1.02 (0.66–1.57) 1.06 (0.69–1.64) 1.13 (0.72–1.79)
Ecological zone     
 Hill/mountain     
 Terai 1.08 (0.90–1.31) 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 1.19 (0.98–1.45) 1.12 (0.83–1.52)
  1. OR, odd ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  3. aadjusted for sex, marital status, children under 2 years and pregnancy in the household, current residence, occupation and family monthly income