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Table 3 Robustness to unmeasured confounding (E-values a) for assessing the associations between forgiveness and health and well-being (The Nurses’ Health Study II 2008 Supplementary Survey to 2011, 2013 or 2015 Questionnaire Wave)

From: Forgiveness of others and subsequent health and well-being in mid-life: a longitudinal study on female nurses

Health and well-being outcomes Forgiveness of others
(always/almost always vs. never/seldom)
For effect estimate b For CI limit c
Positive affect 1.64 1.56
Social integration 1.56 1.50
Depression diagnosis 1.43 1.00
Depressive symptoms 1.58 1.52
Anxiety symptoms 1.45 1.36
Hopelessness 1.61 1.53
Loneliness 1.47 1.39
Heavy drinking 1.00 1.00
Current cigarette smoking 1.11 1.00
Frequent physical activity 1.01 1.00
Preventive healthcare use 1.00 1.00
Dietary quality 1.23 1.12
All-cause mortality 1.17 1.00
No. of physical health problems 1.11 1.00
 Diabetes 1.29 1.00
 Stroke 1.11 1.00
 Heart Disease 1.15 1.00
 Cancer 1.11 1.00
 Overweight/obesity 1.11 1.00
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval
  2. a See VanderWeele and Ding (2017) [29] for the formula and Mathur et al. (2018) [28] for the website and R package for calculating E-values
  3. b. The E-values for effect estimates are the minimum strength of association on the risk ratio scale that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the exposure and the outcome, above and beyond the measured covariates, to fully explain away the observed association of forgiveness (always/almost always vs. never/seldom) with various outcomes
  4. c. The E-values for the limit of the 95% confidence interval closest to the null denote the minimum strength of association on the risk ratio scale that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the exposure and the outcome, above and beyond the measured covariates, to shift the confidence interval to include the null value