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Table 2 Change from baseline to first and second follow-up of outcomes in the intervention and comparison group

From: What are the effects of supporting early parenting by newborn behavioral observations (NBO)? A cluster randomised trial

  Mean change from baseline to follow-up
n Intervention Comparison Difference (95% CI) P-value
Follow-up 3 months postpartum
 Maternal Confidence KPCSa (0–45) 1133 0.86 0.91 0.10 (−0.48, 0.69) 0.73
 Major Depression Inventory MDIb (0–30) 1519 −0.68 − 0.44 − 0.39 (−1.45, 0.70 0.46
 Mother and Baby Interaction Scale MABISCb (0–40) 1125 −1.04 −0.79 − 0.27 (− 0.62, 0.09) 0.14
 Ages & Stages Questionnaire ASQ:SEb (0–15) 1178 0.29 0.29 0.00 (−0.09, 0.09) 0.98
Follow-up 9 months postpartum
 Maternal Confidence KPCSa (0–45) 1133 1.04 0.99 0.07 (−0.68, 0.83) 0.84
 Major Depression Inventory MDIb (0–30) 1125 −0.17 0.07 −0.68 (−2.09, 0.74) 0.35
 Mother and Baby Interaction Scale MABISCb (0–40) 1125 −1.80 −1.87 −0.15 (−0.67, 0.31) 0.58
 Ages & Stages Questionnaire ASQ:SEb (0–15) 1178 −0.44 −0.36 − 0.08 (− 0.20, 0.04) 0.21
  1. Note; ahigh score favourable, blow score favourable. Pp: postpartum. (95% CI): 95% confidence interval. The difference is estimated by mixed-effects regression adjusted for clustering, parity, education, single living, and preterm birth.