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Table 3 Association between time preference and personal values (commitment to value and area of priority values) at age 15 retrospectively assessed in a community adult sample of Japan: Multiple linear regression analysisa

From: Time preference and personal value: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

  Crude     Sex & age adjustedb    Fully adjustedc   
b SE beta p b SE beta p b SE beta p
Discrate (N = 1880)
 Commitment to value −0.229 0.162 −0.033 0.158 −0.294 0.164 −0.042 0.072 −0.183 0.165 −0.026 0.268
 Not bothering others −0.143 0.045 −0.073 0.002 −0.100 0.046 −0.051 0.029 −0.082 0.046 −0.041 0.076
 Being evaluated by others −0.137 0.047 −0.067 0.004 −0.120 0.047 −0.058 0.012 −0.081 0.047 −0.040 0.089
 Having and keeping a belief −0.017 0.048 −0.008 0.727 −0.019 0.048 −0.009 0.701 0.021 0.048 0.010 0.660
 Economically succeeding −0.047 0.052 −0.021 0.368 −0.065 0.052 −0.029 0.215 −0.059 0.053 −0.026 0.268
 Improving society −0.065 0.049 −0.030 0.188 −0.056 0.050 −0.026 0.259 −0.026 0.050 −0.012 0.607
 Exploring what you were interested in −0.028 0.047 −0.014 0.557 −0.068 0.048 −0.033 0.152 −0.042 0.048 −0.020 0.379
 Having influence on society −0.012 0.048 −0.006 0.806 −0.038 0.048 −0.018 0.435 −0.023 0.049 −0.011 0.643
 Actively challenging −0.023 0.048 −0.011 0.626 −0.031 0.049 −0.015 0.522 0.008 0.049 0.004 0.862
 Cherishing familiar people −0.138 0.042 −0.075 0.001 −0.109 0.042 −0.059 0.010 −0.100 0.043 −0.055 0.019
 Graduating from a famous school −0.275 0.057 −0.111 0.000 −0.251 0.057 −0.102 0.000 −0.136 0.053 −0.055 0.011
 Maintaining a stable life −0.192 0.048 −0.092 0.000 −0.172 0.049 −0.082 0.000 −0.137 0.049 −0.066 0.005
Hyperbolic (N = 1958)
 Commitment to value −1.055 0.547 −0.044 0.054 −0.960 0.547 −0.040 0.079 −1.093 0.547 −0.045 0.046
 Not bothering others 0.059 0.153 0.009 0.699 0.041 0.152 0.006 0.789 0.018 0.152 0.003 0.904
 Being evaluated by others 0.019 0.160 0.003 0.905 0.017 0.159 0.002 0.915 −0.021 0.158 −0.003 0.896
 Having and keeping a belief −0.181 0.161 −0.025 0.261 −0.177 0.162 −0.025 0.273 −0.228 0.161 −0.032 0.155
 Economically succeeding −0.148 0.176 −0.019 0.398 −0.115 0.175 −0.015 0.512 −0.149 0.176 −0.019 0.397
 Improving society −0.099 0.166 −0.013 0.551 −0.088 0.166 −0.012 0.598 −0.130 0.165 −0.018 0.431
 Exploring what you were interested in −0.142 0.160 −0.020 0.375 −0.107 0.159 −0.015 0.503 −0.126 0.158 −0.018 0.426
 Having influence on society −0.318 0.162 −0.044 0.050 −0.294 0.162 −0.041 0.069 −0.326 0.162 −0.045 0.045
 Actively challenging −0.197 0.163 −0.027 0.226 −0.176 0.163 −0.024 0.280 −0.226 0.162 −0.031 0.163
 Cherishing familiar people 0.069 0.143 0.011 0.628 0.062 0.142 0.010 0.662 0.048 0.142 0.008 0.734
 Graduating from a famous school 0.204 0.191 0.024 0.286 0.233 0.191 0.028 0.221 0.113 0.176 0.013 0.522
 Maintaining a stable life 0.196 0.163 0.027 0.230 0.201 0.163 0.028 0.217 0.148 0.162 0.021 0.361
  1. * No variable was significant at p < 0.0045 (Bonferroni’s correction) for priority area of value
  2. a Regression of commitment to values or each area-specific score of priority values on time preference, and other covariates; standard regression coefficient (b), standard error (SE), and ps for significance are shown
  3. b Adjusted for sex and age groups in the analysis of time discount (discrate); adjusted for sex, age groups, and the response to Q2 in the analysis of hyperbolic time discount
  4. c Additionally adjusted for educational attainment, job status, marital status, parental education, and economic hardship at age 15