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Table 2 Association between time preference and personal values (commitment to value and area of priority values) at present (in adulthood) assessed in a community adult sample of Japan: Multiple linear regression analysisa

From: Time preference and personal value: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

  Crude Sex & age adjustedb Fully adjustedc
b SE beta p b SE beta p b SE beta p
Discrate (N = 1880)
 Commitment to value −0.273 0.143 − 0.044 0.056 − 0.294 0.144 − 0.047 0.042 − 0.161 0.144 − 0.026 0.263
 Not bothering others −0.034 0.030 −0.026 0.264 −0.023 0.030 −0.018 0.444 −0.028 0.031 − 0.021 0.367
 Being evaluated by others −0.029 0.045 − 0.015 0.515 −0.060 0.045 − 0.031 0.187 − 0.049 0.046 −0.025 0.281
 Having and keeping a belief −0.011 0.038 −0.007 0.772 −0.013 0.039 −0.008 0.730 0.003 0.039 0.002 0.932
 Economically succeeding −0.085 0.037 −0.053 0.023 −0.100 0.038 −0.062 0.008 −0.089 0.038 −0.055 0.019
 Improving society −0.087 0.039 −0.052 0.025 −0.062 0.039 −0.037 0.113 −0.046 0.040 −0.027 0.250
 Exploring what you were interested in 0.011 0.039 0.007 0.777 0.007 0.039 0.004 0.858 0.022 0.040 0.013 0.573
 Having influence on society − 0.013 0.046 −0.007 0.775 − 0.024 0.046 −0.012 0.609 −0.020 0.047 −0.010 0.669
 Actively challenging −0.072 0.041 −0.040 0.082 −0.081 0.042 −0.045 0.054 −0.064 0.042 −0.036 0.131
 Cherishing familiar people −0.112 0.029 −0.090 < 0.001* −0.087 0.029 −0.070 0.002* −0.075 0.029 −0.060 0.009
 Graduating from a famous school −0.149 0.053 −0.065 0.005 −0.120 0.054 −0.052 0.027 −0.065 0.054 −0.028 0.223
 Maintaining a stable life −0.147 0.031 −0.107 < 0.001* −0.126 0.031 −0.092 < 0.001* − 0.114 0.032 − 0.084 < 0.001*
Hyperbolic (N=1,958)
 Commitment to value 0.016 0.484 0.001 0.974 0.048 0.484 0.002 0.921 −0.130 0.479 −0.006 0.787
 Not bothering others −0.057 0.101 −0.013 0.572 −0.057 0.101 −0.013 0.577 −0.051 0.101 −0.012 0.612
 Being evaluated by others 0.219 0.151 0.033 0.148 0.240 0.151 0.036 0.113 0.239 0.152 0.036 0.116
 Having and keeping a belief −0.148 0.129 −0.026 0.252 −0.149 0.129 −0.026 0.248 −0.185 0.130 −0.032 0.154
 Economically succeeding 0.011 0.125 0.002 0.928 0.032 0.125 0.006 0.797 0.008 0.125 0.001 0.952
 Improving society −0.098 0.132 −0.017 0.456 −0.105 0.132 −0.018 0.426 −0.125 0.132 −0.021 0.345
 Exploring what you were interested in 0.034 0.132 0.006 0.797 0.033 0.133 0.006 0.803 0.024 0.133 0.004 0.856
 Having influence on society −0.169 0.155 −0.025 0.278 −0.164 0.155 −0.024 0.291 −0.185 0.156 −0.027 0.236
 Actively challenging −0.004 0.141 −0.001 0.979 0.002 0.141 < 0.001 0.986 −0.015 0.141 −0.002 0.913
 Cherishing familiar people −0.149 0.097 −0.035 0.124 −0.153 0.096 −0.036 0.110 −0.171 0.095 −0.040 0.073
 Graduating from a famous school −0.101 0.181 −0.013 0.577 −0.097 0.181 −0.012 0.591 −0.154 0.179 −0.019 0.391
 Maintaining a stable life −0.058 0.106 −0.012 0.587 −0.061 0.105 −0.013 0.562 −0.069 0.106 −0.015 0.514
  1. * Significant at p < 0.0045 (Bonferroni’s correction) for priority area of value
  2. a Regression of commitment to values or each area-specific score of priority values on time preference, and other covariates; standard regression coefficient (b), standard error (SE), and ps for significance are shown
  3. b Adjusted for sex and age groups in the analysis of time discount (discrate); adjusted for sex, age groups, and the response to Q2 in the analysis of hyperbolic time discount
  4. c Additionally adjusted for educational attainment, job status, marital status, parental education, and economic hardship at age 15