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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, time preference indicators, and personal values at age 15 and at present in a community adult sample in Japan

From: Time preference and personal value: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

  Sample used for analysis on discrate (N = 1880) Sample used for analysis on hyperbolic (N = 1958)
n % Mean SD n % Mean SD
Sex (male) 1048 55.7%    1099 58.5%   
Age
 20–39 385 20.5%    401 20.5%   
 40–49 800 42.6%    824 42.1%   
 50–60 695 37.0%    733 37.4%   
Educational attainment
 Junior high 50 2.7%    54 2.8%   
 High school graduate 331 17.9%    351 17.9%   
 Some college 642 34.8%    676 34.5%   
 University graduate 857 46.4%    799 40.8%   
Job status (working) 1602 86.7%    1668 85.2%   
Marital status (married) 1433 77.6%    1493 76.3%   
Parental education (university or higher) 702 38.0%    733 37.4%   
Economic hardship at age 15 352 19.1%    365 18.6%   
Personal value:a
Commitment to value at age 15 (16–40)    26.52 4.72    26.51 4.73
Area of priority value at age 15 (1–7)
 Not bothering others    5.62 1.33    5.62 1.33
 Being evaluated by others    4.91 1.38    4.90 1.38
 Having and keeping a belief    4.83 1.39    4.83 1.40
 Economically succeeding    4.23 1.52    4.23 1.52
 Improving society    3.77 1.43    3.76 1.44
 Exploring what you were interested in    5.16 1.38    5.16 1.39
 Having influence on society    3.27 1.40    3.27 1.41
 Actively challenging    4.50 1.41    4.49 1.41
 Cherishing familiar people    5.55 1.23    5.55 1.24
 Graduating from a famous school    4.32 1.66    4.31 1.66
 Maintaining a stable life    4.88 1.41    4.88 1.41
Commitment to value at present (16–40)    28.78 4.17    28.76 4.18
Area of priority value at present (1–7)
 Not bothering others    6.25 0.88    6.25 0.88
 Being evaluated by others    4.77 1.31    4.77 1.31
 Having and keeping a belief    5.56 1.12    5.56 1.12
 Economically succeeding    5.35 1.09    5.36 1.08
 Improving society    5.00 1.14    5.00 1.14
 Exploring what you were interested in    5.41 1.13    5.40 1.14
 Having influence on society    3.81 1.34    3.81 1.34
 Actively challenging    5.24 1.21    5.24 1.22
 Cherishing familiar people    6.47 0.84    6.47 0.84
 Graduating from a famous school    4.14 1.56    4.13 1.57
 Maintaining a stable life    6.11 0.92    6.11 0.92
Time preference
 Discrate    −0.07 0.67    NAb NAb
 Hyperbolic 72 3.8%    78 4.0%   
  1. a Score ranges in the parentheses
  2. b Could not calculated due to missing responses among 78 respondents