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Table 2 Measures, Cronbach alpha values and example items

From: Differential and shared effects of psychological skills training and mindfulness training on performance-relevant psychological factors in sport: a randomized controlled trial

Concept Measurement Subscale(s) α Example item
Mindfulness FFMQ-SFa) Acting with awareness .50 I find it difficult to stay focused on what’s happening in the present moment (reversed).
Nonjudging of inner experience .73 I tell myself I shouldn’t be feeling the way I’m feeling (reversed).
Nonreactivity to inner experience 76 I watch my feelings without getting carried away by them.
Use of psychological skills TOPSa) Self-talk .87 I say things to myself to help my competitive performance.
Imagery .79 During practice, I visualize successful past performances.
Goal setting .86 I have very specific goals for training.
Activation .81 I can raise my energy level at competitions when necessary.
Relaxation .87 When the pressure is on at competitions, I know how to relax.
Techniques to handle emotions .65 In competition, I use techniques to control my emotions.
Techniques to regulate attention .72 In training, I use techniques to control my attention.
Emotion regulation TOPSa) Emotional control .83 My emotions keep me from performing my best at competitions (reversed)
Experiential avoidance AAQ-IIb) .79 I’m afraid of my feelings.
Emotional competencies SEC-27a) Acceptance of emotions .64 I am able to stand by my feelings.
Attention regulation TOPSa) Attention control .83 I am able to control distracting thoughts when training.
Cognitive interference TOQSb) Thoughts of escape .90 During competition, I have thoughts that I want to get out of here.
Situation-irrelevant thoughts .85 During competition, I have thoughts about what I’m going to do later in the day.
Performance worries .77 During competition, I have thoughts that I’m having a bad day.
TOPSa) Negative cognitions .87 My self-talk during competition is negative.
Decentering EQa) Distanced perspective .77 I can separate myself from my thoughts and feelings.
Dealing with failures ASOAF6b) Action orientation .63 If I get little playtime to prove myself, and something goes wrong, I try to do better in the next action.
If I fail in an important situation in a (championship) match, I quickly forget about it and concentrate on the next chance.
If everything goes wrong in one day, then I continue to play as determinedly as if it hadn’t happened.
   State orientation .83 If I fail in an important situation in a (championship) game, then it goes through my mind repeatedly in the further course of the game.
If the coach criticizes my behavior, then it keeps me busy even during the game.
If I fail several in actions one after the other in a (championship) game, then my thoughts circle around these failed actions for a long time.
  1. Note. FFMQ-SF Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire short form, TOPS Test of Performance Strategies, AAQ-II Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, SEC-27 Self-assessment of Emotional Competencies, TOQS Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport, EQ Experience Questionnaire, ASOAF6 Action and State Orientation after Failure
  2. a) = 5-point Likert scale, b) = 7-point Likert scale