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Table 3 Hierarchical regression analysis testing ECR Anxiety and Avoidance as predictors of MPAS

From: Adult attachment style and maternal-infant bonding: the indirect path of parenting stress

BlockPredictorsb (95% CI)SE BβpR2
1ECR Anxiety−0.10 (− 0.18, − 0.03)0.04−.23.005.16
ECR Avoidance−0.16 (− 0.29, − 0.04)0.06−.23.010 
2ECR Anxiety−0.08 (− 0.15, − 0.01)0.04−.18.030.23
ECR Avoidance−0.19 (− 0.34, − 0.07)0.07−.28.005 
NBO Group0.01 (−2.35, 2.33)1.19.00.992 
Maternal age0.07 (−0.23, 0.38)0.16.04.664 
Parenting experience3.08 (0.61, 5.48)1.25.19.014 
Maternal educationa     
   Upper secondary school or lower3.52 (−1.01, 7.83)2.25.14.110 
   Up to 4 years of higher education1.30 (−1.20, 3.89)1.30.07.327 
Gross annual household incomeb     
   351,000–750,000 NOK (39,785–85,011 USD)−4.95 (−11.40, 0.50)3.01−.27.085 
   751,000 NOK (85,125 USD) or more−3.90 (−9.99, 1.40)2.88−.22.153 
3ECR Anxiety−0.07 (−0.14, 0.01)0.04−.15.097.25
ECR Avoidance−0.19 (− 0.33, − 0.06)0.07−.27.009 
NBO Group0.04 (−2.28, 2.31)1.16.00.967 
Maternal age0.15 (−0.16, 0.46)0.16.08.358 
Parenting experience3.35 (0.89, 5.74)1.25.21.009 
Maternal educationa
 Upper secondary school or lower3.98 (−0.66, 8.35)2.30.16.078 
 Up to 4 years of higher education1.49 (−1.07, 4.16)1.33.09.266 
Gross annual household incomeb     
 351,000–750,000 NOK (39,785–85,011 USD)−4.87 (−12.12, 1.04)3.33−.26.124 
 751,000 NOK (85,125 USD) or more−4.42 (−11.31, 1.34)3.20−.25.142 
Mental health help seeking0.86 (−2.28, 3.84)1.57.05.588 
Previous experience with being depressed−3.02 (−6.59, 0.37)1.79−.18.093 
Previous lack of joy−0.14 (− 3.23, 3.16)1.62−.01.930 
  1. ECR Experiences in Close Relationships, NBO Newborn Behavioral Observation; adummy coded variables with four or more years of higher education serve as a reference; bdummy coded variables with 350,000 NOK (39,259 USD) or less serve as a reference; “Mental health help seeking” = having been in contact with professionals for mental health issues; “Previous experience with being depressed” = Previous experience with being depressed most of the day, almost every day for a period of 2 weeks; “Previous lack of joy” = Having previously had a 2-week period of diminished ability to enjoy things one has usually found enjoyable; standard errors and confidence intervals were based on 9992 percentile bootstrap samples as SPSS did not generate the requested 10,000 samples; N = 166