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Table 4 Univariate analysis results for EQ-5D and PHQ-9 in the group of subjects that reported chronic pain (N = 113)

From: Patients with chronic pain: evaluating depression and their quality of life in a single center study in Greece

 EQ-5D scoreValue (df)PPHQ9 scoreValue (df)P
 Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Sex
 Men0.72 (0.25)2.84 (103) +0.005+3.18 (2.74)−3.44 (103) +0.001+
 Women0.57 (0.26)  7.06 (5.60)  
Age, r−0.05103‡‡0.634−0.10103‡‡0.321
Family status
 Married/ in a relationship0.64 (0.26)2.10 (103) +0.038+5.21 (4.35)−2.07 (103) +0.041+
 Single/ Divorced/ Widowed0.51 (0.28)  7.84 (6.12)  
Children
 No0.54 (0.34)0.90 (100) +0.373+7.00 (5.85)−0.86 (99) +0.394+
 Yes0.62 (0.26)  5.54 (5.50)  
Working
 No0.60 (0.27)1.46 (103) +0.148+6.19 (5.65)−1.29 (103) +0.200+
 Yes0.69 (0.25)  4.43 (3.44)  
Educational status
 Primary school0.55 (0.29)2.67 (2. 102) ++0.074++6.18 (5.72)0.57 (2. 102) ++0.567++
 Middle/High school0.67 (0.24)  6.00 (5.80)  
 University0.68 (0.23)  4.56 (4.08)  
Smoking
 No0.61 (0.28)0.21 (103) ++0.838+5.16 (4.39)1.69 (103) ++0.095+
 Yes0.62 (0.24)  7.08 (5.89)  
Alcohol
 No0.61 (0.27)0.65 (103) +0.520+6.00 (5.58)−0.61 (103) +0.546+
 Yes0.65 (0.27)  5.15 (4.91)  
Chronic physical problem
 No0.64 (0.26)−0.38 (103) +0.702+5.23 (4.97)0.57 (103) +0.569+
 Yes0.61 (0.27)  6.00 (5.80)  
Chronic mental disorder
 No0.68 (0.22)−4.81 (103) +< 0.001+4.93 (4.86)3.28 (103) +0.001+
 Yes0.40 (0.31)  9.09 (6.95)  
Duration of pain−0.0493‡‡0.686−0.1295‡‡0.25
Specialist consultation for pain relief
 No0.71 (0.22)−1.84 (103) +0.069+4.80 (6.14)0.92 (103) +0.361+
 Yes0.59 (0.28)  6.08 (5.50)  
Pain depends on weather changes
 No0.67 (0.27)−1.22 (102) +0.224+3.71 (2.93)2.48 (102) +0.015+
 Yes0.6 (0.27)  6.52 (5.43)  
Pain Severity Score, r−0.65104‡‡< 0.0010.44105‡‡< 0.001
Pain Interference Score, r−0.62102‡‡< 0.0010.50104‡‡< 0.001
Depression score PHQ-9, r−0.63100‡‡< 0.001   
  1. ‡Pearson’s correlation coefficient; ‡‡degrees of freedom for Pearson’s correlation coefficient; +Student’s t-test [t-value (DF) is stated]; ++ANOVA [F-value (df1,df2) are stated]