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Table 3 Statistics of direct and indirect effects via HPA reactivity (RQ1) and basal HPA (RQ2) of urbanicity on behavioral and emotional problems in the JOiN and BIBO samples (paths C and C′ in Fig. 1)

From: Urbanicity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, and behavioral and emotional problems in children: a path analysis

 Behavioral problemsEmotional problems
Effect (SE)95% CIEffect (SE)95% CI
RQ1: HPA reactivity
 JOiN (n = 256)
  Direct
   Current urbanicity0.03 (0.04)−0.04/0.110.03 (0.03)−0.03/0.08
  Indirect via
 HPA reactivity
  AUCi0.00 (0.00)−0.01/0.010.00 (0.00)−0.00/0.01
 BIBO (n = 135)
  Direct
   Early childhood urbanicity0.04 (0.10)−0.15/0.230.09 (0.05)−0.02/0.20
  Indirect via
 HPA reactivity
  AUCi−0.00 (0.01)−0.02/0.020.00 (0.01)−0.01/0.01
Meta-analysis (n = 2)
  Direct
   Urbanicity0.03 (0.17)−0.30/0.360.05 (0.14)−0.22/0.32
  Indirect via
 HPA reactivity
  AUCi−0.00 (0.05)−0.09/0.090.00 (0.04)−0.07/0.08
RQ2: Basal HPA
 JOiN (n = 282)
  Direct
   Current urbanicity0.05 (0.04)−0.02/0.130.03 (0.02)−0.01/0.08
  Indirect via
 Basal HPA
  AUCg0.00 (0.00)−0.01/0.01−0.00 (0.00)− 0.01/0.00
  CAR0.00 (0.00)−0.01/0.01−0.00 (0.00)− 0.01/0.00
  Decline−0.00 (0.00)− 0.01/0.000.00 (0.00)− 0.00/0.00
 BIBO (n = 115)
  Direct
   Early childhood urbanicity0.11 (0.10)−0.08/0.310.12 (0.05)0.01/0.23
  Indirect via
 Basal HPA
  AUCg0.01 (0.01)−0.02/0.03−0.00 (0.01)− 0.03/0.01
  Decline−0.00 (0.01)− 0.04/0.02−0.00 (0.01)− 0.02/0.01
 Meta-analysis (n = 2)
  Indirect via
 Basal HPA
  AUCg0.00 (0.05)−0.10/0.10−0.00 (0.04)− 0.08/0.08
  Decline−0.00 (0.04)− 0.09/0.08−0.00 (0.04)− 0.07/0.07
  1. Note. Statistics of 0.00 are larger than zero, although rounded to two decimal places to avoid long numbers. HPA Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, RQ Research question, AUCi Area under the curve with respect to increase, AUCg Area under the curve with respect to ground, CAR Cortisol awakening response