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Table 2 Correlations between all variables used in Research questions 1 and 2

From: Urbanicity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, and behavioral and emotional problems in children: a path analysis

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1. Urbanicity.13.06−.07−.01−.02−.04−.48−.13−.05−.07.04.01
2. BP.07.40−.02−.06−.06−.02−.10−.19−.03−.03−.19.02
3. EP.18.28.04.16.08.00−.05−.11−.02.02.11−.11
4. AUCi.02−.11−.06.44.08.03.01−.04−.06.19.14−.13
5. AUCg−.14−.01.02.15.32.01−.06−.12−.13.16.19−.23
6. CAR−.35−.02.09.03.06.14−.04
7. Decline−.19−.02.01−.01.68.11.10.00−.11.08.13
8. SES-E−.43−.16−.13.01.16.13.40.05.08−.03−.00
9. SES-I.08.03−.00−.04.00−.02.20.20.01.00−.03
10. SES-M.64.02.17−.01−.09−.11−.13−.09
11. Family SES.14.04−.03−.11.10.02−.01.24.01.01.03−.01
12. Age.00.09.03.08.04.01−.08.03−.09.03−.02−.11
13. Sex−.01−.07.04−.03.10.08.13.09.06.15−.09−.05
14. Season.05.12−.07.02.02.11−.09−.02−.02.12.37.01
15. Time.13−.00.10.06.25.31−.05.03.11.01.04−.20.00
  1. bold = p < .01; italics = p < .05.
  2. Note. Correlations are indicated by Spearman’s coefficients. Coefficients in the top right half are from the JOiN study; coefficients in the bottom left half are from the BIBO study. BP = behavioral problems; EP = emotional problems; AUCi = area under the curve with respect to increase; AUCg = area under the curve with respect to ground; CAR = cortisol awakening response; SES = socioeconomic status; E = employment; I = income; M = multi-ethnicity; Time = time between basal cortisol 1 and basal cortisol 4