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Table 2 Changes in the participants’ psychological distress (GHQ-12 Likert scores) from the end of the study program until 3 years into their professional work lives

From: The transition from university to work: what happens to mental health? A longitudinal study

GroupsnEnd of study program3-year follow-upTestES
M (SD)M (SD)pd
Total sample77311.7 (5.3)10.8 (4.7)< 0.0010.14
Healthcare35711.9 (5.4)10.5 (4.4)< 0.0010.22
Teachers22811.3 (5.0)11.1 (5.2)0.560.03
Social workers18811.7 (5.2)10.9 (4.6)0.080.12
  1. Effect sizes (ESs) are calculated by Morris’ (2008) formula: σD = σ·2·1-ρ, see