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Table 2 Logistic Regression analysis to estimate the effect of gender on mental illness, substance use, trauma and violence among Vancouver and Winnipeg Indigenous ‘At home’ participants (N = 439)

From: Gender differences among Indigenous Canadians experiencing homelessness and mental illness

Dependent variable Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
P Value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P Value
Current PTSD 1.83 (1.24–2.70) 0.002 1.81 (1.22–2.69) 0.003
Multiple mental disorders (> 2) 1.92 (1.26–2.94) 0.003 1.86 (1.20–2.86) 0.005
Current suicidality 4.03 (1.93–8.45) < 0.001 3.97 (1.88–8.4) < 0.001
Current substance dependence 1.84 (1.24–2.73) 0.003 1.91 (1.26–2.91) 0.002
During past 6 m did anyone take or try to take something from you by force or threat of force? 1.49 (1.00–2.21) 0.048 1.52 (1.10–2.23) 0.042
During past 6 m did anyone threaten to hit or attack you, or threaten you with a weapon? 1.52 (1.02–2.27) 0.039 1.51 (1.00–2.27) 0.046
During past 6 m has anyone forced you or attempted to force you into any unwanted sexual activity, by threatening you, holding you down or hurting you in some way? 6.35 (2.94–13.74) < 0.001 6.31 (2.78–14.31) < 0.001
  1. Controlled for age (continuous), need level (high, moderate), marital status (single, other), site (Vancouver, Winnipeg), education (high school or higher, less than high school), have children (under 18)
  2. PTSD: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  3. Data in bold are outcome variables that were significant at the p < 0.05 level