Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographic, mental health, substance use and service use characteristics for Vancouver and Winnipeg Indigenous Female and Male Home Study Participants (N = 439)

From: Gender differences among Indigenous Canadians experiencing homelessness and mental illness

Variable Indigenous Female
(N = 169, 38.9%)
N (%)
Indigenous Male
(N = 265, 61.1%)
N (%)
P value
Need Level
 High Need 74 (43.8) 104 (39.2) 0.348
 Moderate Need 95 (56.2) 161 (60.8)  
Age at Enrollment
 Youth 25 (14.8) 28 (10.6) 0.002
 25–44 Years 100 (59.2) 161 (60.8)  
 44 Plus Years 44 (26.0) 76 (28.7)  
Education
 High School or Higher 42 (25.0) 67 (25.4) 0.008
 Less than High School 126 (75.0) 197 (74.6)  
Marital Status
 Single (never married) 117 (69.2) 191 (72.6) 0.030
 Married/Partner 18 (10.7) 11 (4.2)  
 Separated/Widow/divorced 34 (20.1) 61 (23.2)  
 Have Children (under 18) 111 (66.5) 111 (42.7) < 0.001
Hospitalized for mental illness over 6 months in past 5 years 9 (5.4) 13 (5.0) 0.870
Hospitalized for mental illness over 2 times in the past 5 years 44 (26.7) 62 (23.6) 0.471
Arrested/Imprisoned/Probation/Community sanction in past 6 months 57 (33.9) 111 (41.9) 0.098
One or more nights in hospital, detox, shelter and jail in last 6 months 155 (91.7) 226 (85.3) 0.046
Length of Homelessness Lifetime
 1–3 years 81 (49.7) 123 (47.9) 0.714
 3 years plus 82 (50.3) 134 (52.1)  
Length of homelessness lifetime
 12 months 33 (20.2) 56 (21.8) 0.833
 13–60 months 72 (44.2) 106 (41.2)  
 60 months plus 58 (35.6) 95 (37.0)  
Length of homelessness longest single period
 12 months 67 (41.6) 121 (47.8) 0.216
 13–60 months 69 (42.9) 95 (37.5)  
 60 months plus 25 (15.5) 37 (14.6)  
Age first homeless
 18 years or less 50 (29.8) 78 (29.8) 0.643
 19–30 years 54 (32.1) 86 (32.8)  
 31–40 years 30 (17.9) 56 (21.4)  
 Over 40 years 34 (20.2) 42 (16.0)  
Housing Status
 Absolutely Homeless 111 (65.7) 196 (74.0) 0.064
 Precariously Housed 58 (34.3) 69 (26.0)  
Mental illness & substance use
 Less severe mental illness 150 (88.8) 215 (81.1) 0.034
 Multiple mental disorders (≥2) 126 (74.6) 160 (60.4) 0.002
 Current PTSD 98 (58.0) 114 (43.0) 0.002
 Current suicidality 160 (94.7) 216 (81.5) < 0.001
 Current alcohol dependence 111 (65.7) 176 (66.4) 0.875
 Current substance dependence 108 (63.9) 130 (49.1) 0.002
Age first alcohol use
  > 14 yrs. 62 (38.5) 111 (42.7) 0.397
  < 13 yrs. 99 (61.5) 149 (57.3)  
Age first drug use
  > 14 yrs. 73 (45.9) 124 (49.4) 0.491
  < 13 yrs. 86 (54.1) 127 (50.6)  
GAIN-SPS score of substance use
 Less severe (0–3) 86 (55.1) 158 (63.2) 0.106
 Severe [4, 5] 70 (44.9) 92 (36.8)  
Physical illness, service utilization and trauma
 Blood borne diseases 46 (27.5) 74 (28.2) 0.875
 Two or more physical illness 159 (94.1) 225 (84.9) 0.004
 Have a regular medical doctor 131 (77.5) 164 (61.9) 0.001
 Place you usually go when you are sick or need advice about your health 146 (86.4) 222 (84.4) 0.572
 Needed health care, but did not receive it in past 6 months 91 (54.5) 130 (49.8) 0.344
 During past 6 m did anyone take or try to take something from you by force or threat of force? 78 (47.0) 97 (37.3) 0.048
 During past 6 m did anyone threaten to hit or attack you, or threaten you with a weapon? 105 (63.6) 139 (53.5) 0.039
 During past 6 m has anyone forced you or attempted to force you into any unwanted sexual activity, by threatening you, holding you down or hurting you in some way? 31 (18.7) 9 (3.5) < 0.001
  1. PTSD: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  2. GAIN-SPS: Global Assessment of Individual Need –Substance Problem Scale
  3. Data in bold are outcome variables that were significant at the p < 0.05 level