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Table 5 Some proposed ‘z’ codes in a ‘PMC x.y.z’ taxonomy

From: A new conception and subsequent taxonomy of clinical psychological problems

x.1.1 Cognitive avoidance
x.1.2 Emotional avoidance
x.1.3 Behavioural avoidance
x.2.1 Lack of information
x.2.2 ‘Irrational beliefs’
x.2.3 Negative self-talk/rumination
x.3.1 Seeing threat everywhere
x.3.2 Seeing failure everywhere
x.3.3 Seeing dislike/disrespect everywhere
x.4.1 Low energy levels
x.4.2 Poor concentration/decision making
x.4.3 Effects of nightmares
x.4.4 Mood effects
x.5.1 Attention-seeking reinforcement
x.5.2 Tangible, concrete reinforcement
x.5.3 Escape conditioning
x.5.4 A low reinforcement environment
x.6.1 Resorting to alcohol/drugs
x.6.2 Resorting to escape/denial
x.6.3 Resorting to aggression
x.6.4 Resorting to self-harm
x.6.5 Reduced social support
x.6.6 Reduced exercise/activity