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Table 1 Articles included in systematic review

From: Interventions designed to reduce implicit prejudices and implicit stereotypes in real world contexts: a systematic review

Type of intervention Reference Country Bias Type of Intervention Effective
Engaging with others’ perspective, consciousness-raising or imagining contact with outgroup Dermody, Jones, and Cumming 2013 [19] Australia Sexuality: male homosexual/male heterosexual Imagined positive contact No
Turner and Crisp 2010 [20] UK Age: young/old Imagined positive contact Yes
Religion: Muslim/non-Muslim
Rukavina et al. 2010 [21] US Obesity stereotype: fat/lazy versus thin/motivated Classroom & service learning components, including perspective taking No
Swift et al. 2013 [22] UK Obesity Educational films to induce empathy with outgroup No
Devine et al. 2012 [23] US Race: black/white Multi-faceted prejudice habit-breaking intervention including perspective taking Yes
O’Brien et al. 2010 [24] UK, US, Pakistan, New Zealand Obesity Tutorial on uncontrollable reasons for obesity (genes/environment) Yes
J.-L. Á. Castillo, Camara, and Eguizábal 2011 [25] Spain Race: Moroccan/ Native Spanish Perspective taking / imagination No
Lehr: Perspective Taking [18] US Race: black/ white Perspective taking / imagination No
Chen & Turner: Imagining Interracial Contact [18] US Race: black/ white Imagined positive contact with outgroup and imagined negative contact with ingroup No
Schaefer: Training Empathic Responding [18] US Race: black/ white Empathy training No
Park, Felix, and Lee 2007 [26] US Race: Arab Muslims/black Positive information about Arab-Muslims Yes
Exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars Joy-Gaba and Nosek 2010 [27] US Race: black/ white Exposure to admired black exemplars and disliked white exemplars Yes
McGrane and White 2007 [28] Australia Racial: Asian/Anglo Positive outgroup exemplars Yes
Columb and Plant 2011 [29] US Race: black/white Obama as positive black exemplar Yes
Marini et al.: Vivid Counterstereotypic Scenario [18] US Race: black/ white Vivid counterstereotypic scenario Yes
Teachman: Practicing an IAT With Counterstereotypical Exemplars [18] US Race: black / white Practising IATs with counterstereotypical exemplars Yes
Frazier: Shifting Group Boundaries Through Competition [18] US Race: black/ white Game where all teammates were positive and black and opponents all white and negative Yes
Lehr: Shifting Group Affiliations Under Threat [18] US Race: black / white Study 2: Vivid post-apocalyptic scenario with positive black characters No
Study 3: Negative white characters added Yes
Kesebir: Highlighting the Value of a Subgroup in Competition [18] US Race: black/ white Positive outgroup exemplars (famous basketball players) No
Appeals to egalitarian values (activating egalitarian goals). Blincoe and Harris 2009 [30] US Race: black/ white Priming tolerance, respect or co-operation Yes
Clobert, Saroglou, and Hwang 2015 [31] Belgium / Taiwan Race: black/ white Priming Buddhist concepts Yes
Religion: Christian/Muslim
L. G. Castillo et al. 2007 [32] US Race: black/white Multicultural counseling classes Yes
Joy-Gaba: Priming Feelings of Nonobjectivity [18] US Race: black/ white Priming feelings of non-objectivity No
Ho: Priming an Egalitarian Mindset [18] US Race: black/ white Priming an egalitarian mindset No
Heiphetz: Priming Multiculturalism [18] US Race: black/ white Priming multiculturalism Yes
Heiphetz: Considering Racial Injustice [18] US Race: black/ white Considering racial injustice No
Hawkins: Instilling a Sense of Common Humanity [18] US Race: black/ white Instilling a sense of common humanity No
Identifying the self with the outgroup Brannon and Walton 2013 [33] US Race: Latino/white Cueing social connectedness with outgroup member Yes
Groom, Bailenson, and Nass 2009 [34] US Race: black/ white Embodiment in black avatars No
Gündemir et al. 2014 [35] The Netherlands Race stereotype: Dutch/high status versus ethnic minority/low status; Dutch/leader versus ethnic minority/leader Invoking a sense of identity with the outgroup Yes
Hall, Crisp, and Suen 2009 [36] UK Race: black/white Experiment 1: Focusing on what ingroup and outgroup have in common Yes
Experiment 2: Listing overlapping subgroups of ingroup and outgroup No
Maister et al. 2013 [37] UK, Hungary, the Netherlands Race: black/ white Multisensory stimulation to induce the feeling of ownership over a dark-skinned hand Yes
Peck et al. 2013 [38] Spain, Italy, UK Race: black/ white Embodiment in black avatars Yes
Woodcock and Monteith 2013 [39] US Race: black/white Ex. 1: Conditioning links between self and black No
Ex. 2: Conditioning links between self and black (replication and extension) Yes
Evaluative conditioning Calanchini et al. 2013 [40] US Race: black/ white Affirm black-positive and white-negative picture pairings Yes
French et al. 2013 [41] US Race: Middle Eastern/white Evaluative conditioning: Middle Eastern faces-positive and white faces -neutral Yes
Kawakami et al. 2007 [42] US Race: black/white Approach/avoidance training Yes
Wojcik & Koleva: Evaluative Conditioning [18] US Race: black/ white Study 1 & 2: Evaluative conditioning using IAT No
Study 3 & 4: Fewer trials Yes
Cerruti & Shin: Evaluative Conditioning With the Go/No-Go Association Task [18] US Race: black/ white Study 1: Evaluative conditioning using GNAT No
Study 2–4: Fewer trials and minor modifications Yes
Inducing emotion Huntsinger, Sinclair, and Clore 2009 [43] US Race: black/white Mood induction via music Yes
Huntsinger et al. 2010 [44] US Gender stereotype: men/leader versus women/supporter Mood induction via music Yes
Haidt: Inducing Moral Elevation [18] US Race: black/white Inducing moral elevation No
Lai, Haidt, and Nosek 2014 [45] US Sexuality: male homosexual/male heterosexual Inducing moral elevation Yes
Intentional strategies to overcome biases (override or suppress influence of biases) Wallaert, Ward, and Mann 2010 [46] US Race: black/white Told to avoid stereotyping on IAT Yes
Lai: Using Implementation Intentions [18] US Race: black/ white Implementation intentions Yes
Lai: Faking the IAT [18] US Race: black/ white Taught to try to fake responses on the IAT Yes
Drugs Terbeck et al. 2012 [47] UK Race: black/ white Single oral dose of propanol (40 mg) in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, design. Yes
  1. Titles in bold are interventions from the competition article [18]