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Table 4 Unadjusted associations of diversity of productive activities, mental health and quality of life for men and women, mean (SD)

From: Productive activities, mental health and quality of life in disability: exploring the role enhancement and the role strain hypotheses

  Men Women
Mental health Quality of life Mental health Quality of life
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Not engaged in diverse productive activities (none or one activity) 67.1 (19.8) 11.8 (3.7) 63.3 (19.4) 11.7 (4.0)
Number of productive activities
 Two 72.7 (17.3) 13.9 (3.4) 68.3 (18.2) 13.9 (3.2)
 Three 75.8 (15.0) 14.5 (3.3) 69.2 (16.8) 14.1 (3.7)
 Four 77.6 (14.3) 15.0 (3.4) 70.6 (19.6) 14.8 (3.2)
p < 0.001 < 0.001 0.035 < 0.001
Combination of productive activities
 Two to three unpaid activities 71.7 (17.1) 13.1 (3.5) 69.5 (17.7) 14.1 (3.3)
 Paid work + one unpaid activity 73.2 (17.1) 14.3 (3.3) 68.5 (18.8) 14.0 (3.3)
 Paid work + two unpaid activities 76.4 (15.0) 14.7 (3.2) 68.1 (16.5) 13.9 (3.7)
 Paid work + three unpaid activities 77.6 (14.3) 15.0 (3.4) 70.6 (19.6) 14.8 (3.2)
p < 0.001 < 0.001 0.117 < 0.001
  1. p-values for the comparison of means across categorical variables from Kruskal-Wall test. Note: Unpaid activities include volunteering, education, and housework