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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the SwiSCI baseline population in employable age

From: Productive activities, mental health and quality of life in disability: exploring the role enhancement and the role strain hypotheses

  m: men, women Total Men Women p gender differencesb
(n = 1157) (n = 840) (n = 317)
Sociodemographic and lesion characteristics
Age, mean (SD) 0, 0 46.5 (11.2) 46.7 (11.2) 45.8 (11.2) 0.225
Education in years, mean (SD) 15, 2 13.9 (3.3) 13.9 (3.2) 13.8 (3.4) 0.069
Having a partner, n (%) 28, 6 747 (66.5) 552 (68.1) 195 (62.7) 0.093
Receiving disability pension, n (%) 0, 0 648 (56.0) 446 (53.1) 202 (63.7) 0.001
Lesion severity, n (%) 7, 2     0.001
  Paraplegia incomplete   400 (34.8) 268 (32.2) 132 (41.9)  
  Paraplegia complete   392 (34.2) 293 (35.2) 99 (31.4)  
  Tetraplegia incomplete   223 (19.4) 160 (19.2) 63 (20.0)  
  Tetraplegia complete   133 (11.6) 112 (13.5) 21 (6.7)  
Time since injury in years, mean (SD) 17, 8 16.9 (11.7) 17.0 (11.8) 16.6 (11.6) 0.674
Traumatic aetiology, n (%) 10, 3 958 (83.7) 728 (87.7) 230 (73.3) < 0.001
 Non-traumatic aetiology   186 (16.3) 102 (12.3) 84 (26.8)  
Functional independence, 0-100, mean (SD) 205, 86 66.6 (22.0) 67.1 (22.2) 67.7 (19.8) 0.912
Load of productive activities
Total productivity load, 0–100, mean (SD) 22, 12 22.9 (12.7) 23.2 (12.9) 22.2 (11.9) 0.188
  Lowest quartile, n (%)   264 (23.6) 187 (23.0) 77 (25.4) 0.266
  2nd quartile, n (%)   259 (23.2) 179 (22.0) 80 (26.4)  
  3rd quartile, n (%)   328 (29.4) 247 (30.3) 81 (26.7)  
  Highest quartile, n (%)   266 (23.8) 201 (24.7) 65 (21.5)  
Paid work (h/week), n (%) 1, 1     < 0.001
  None   446 (39.1) 290 (34.9) 156 (50.2)  
  1–16   195 (17.1) 131 (15.6) 69 (21.8)  
  > 16   501 (43.9) 418 (49.8) 91 (28.8)  
Volunteering (h/week), n (%) 0, 1     0.066
  None   572 (49.5) 398 (47.4) 174 (55.1)  
  1–8   461 (39.9) 349 (41.6) 112 (35.4)  
   > 8   123 (10.6) 93 (11.1) 30 (9.5)  
Education (h/week), n (%) 1, 1     0.009
  None   852 (73.8) 599 (71.4) 253 (80.1)  
  1–8   240 (20.8) 188 (22.4) 52 (16.5)  
   > 8   63 (5.5) 52 (6.2) 11 (3.5)  
Housework (h/week), n (%) 20, 11     < 0.001
  None   144 (12.8) 127 (15.5) 17 (5.6)  
  1–8   556 (49.4) 444 (54.2) 112 (36.6)  
   > 8   426 (37.8) 249 (30.4) 177 (57.8)  
Diversity of productive activities
Number of productive activities, mean (SD) 22, 12 2.3 (1.1) 2.3 (1.1) 2.1 (0.9) 0.001
  None, n (%)   55 (4.9) 48 (5.9) 7 (2.3) < 0.001
  One, n (%)   217 (19.3) 138 (16.9) 79 (25.9)
  Two, n (%)   365 (32.5) 253 (30.9) 112 (37.7)
  Three, n (%)   349 (31.1) 259 (31.7) 90 (29.5)
  Four, n (%)   137 (12.2) 120 (14.7) 17 (5.6)
Combination of productive activities, n (%) 22, 12     < 0.001
  None or one activity   272 (24.2) 186 (22.7) 86 (28.2)  
  Two or three unpaid activitiesa   185 (16.5) 116 (14.2) 69 (22.6)  
  Paid work + one unpaid activitya   224 (20.0) 165 (20.2) 59 (19.3)  
  Paid work + two unpaid activitiesa   305 (27.2) 231 (28.2) 74 (24.3)  
  Paid work + three unpaid activitiesa   137 (12.2) 120 (14.7) 17 (5.6)  
Mental health and quality of life
 Mental health, 0–100, mean (SD) 0, 0 71.6 (17.8) 73.1 (17.3) 67.5 (18.4) < 0.001
 Quality of life, 0–20, mean (SD) 0, 0 13.6 (3.6) 13.8 (3.6) 13.4 (3.7) 0.152
  1. aUnpaid activities are: housework, volunteering, and education. Abbreviations: m Missing values. % excluding missing values
  2. bp-values from chi-square test for categorical variables (applies for all categories) and from Mann-Whitney U test for the comparison of means