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Table 2 Unadjusted Enrollment, Pre- and Post- Intervention Outcomes, Overall and by Randomization Group

From: Music-instruction intervention for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot study

  Enrollment Score μ (SD) Pre-Intervention Score μ (SD) Change in Scorea (p-value) Post-Intervention Score μ (SD) Change in Scoreb (p-value)
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PCL-C)
 Overall   66.7 (9.3)   52.0 (14.3) −14.6 (< 0.0001)
 Delayed Entry 69.2 (9.5) 63.7 (10.2) −5.6 (0.06) 52.6 (15.4) −11.1 (0.007)
 Immediate Entry   67.9 (8.8)   51.8 (14.2) −16.1 (< 0.0001)
Depression (BDI-II)
 Overall   30.3 (8.4)   21.6 (11.9) −8.7 (< 0.0001)
 Delayed Entry 33.3 (11.4) 29.4 (8.7) −4.9 (0.02) 21.2 (9.7) −8.2 (0.0003)
 Immediate Entry   30.7 (8.4)   21.7 (12.9) −9.0 (0.004)
Social Functioning (UCLA Loneliness Scale)
 Overall   56.1 (3.9)   54.6 (3.8) −1.5 (0.08)
 Delayed Entry 57.2 (3.0) 56.7 (3.6) 0.5 (0.66) 54.8 (2.9) −1.9 (0.29)
 Immediate Entry   55.8 (4.1)   54.5 (4.1) −1.3 (0.17)
Quality of Life (EuroQoL)
 Overall   0.461 (0.28)   0.56 (0.22) 0.098 (0.03)
 Delayed Entry 0.206 (0.276) 0.459 (0.30) 0.254 (0.05) 0.478 (0.26) 0.018 (0.80)
 Immediate Entry   0.462 (0.28)   0.596 (0.19) 0.134 (0.02)
Cognitive Difficulties (CFQ)
 Overall   60.0 (17.3)   52.0 (19.9) −8.0 (0.006)
 Delayed Entry 62.9 (15.6) 57.8 (15.7) −5.1 (0.05) 54.3 (22.3) −4.3 (0.37)
 Immediate Entry   60.7 (18.5)   51.0 (19.1) −9.7 (0.009)
  1. P-values forthcoming from comparison of means using two-sided paired t-tests. Differences at or below the threshold of p < 0.05 are marked in bold
  2. aValues reflect change in score during wait period among veterans randomized to delayed entry (A1-X, Fig. 1)
  3. b Values reflect change in score between pre- and post-intervention periods for each group, that is, (B-A) and (B1-A1) in Fig. 1 for immediate and delayed entry, respectively