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Table 4 Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios of the association of violence and coercion (threats) with anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression in trafficked females, n = 569

From: Mental health, violence and psychological coercion among female and male trafficking survivors in the greater Mekong sub-region: a cross-sectional study

  Unadjusted model Adjusted Model 1a Adjusted Model 2b
PRc 95% CId PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
Anxiety
 Violence
  No violence (reference) 1.0   1.0    
  Physical violence only 1.31 1.06–1.62** 1.18 0.93–1.49   
  Sexual violence only 0.90 0.59–1.39 0.94 0.48–1.83   
  Both physical and sexual violence 1.68 1.37–2.07*** 2.08 1.64–2.64***   
 Receiving threats during trafficking
  None (reference) 1.0     1.0  
  Personal threats 1.93 1.54–2.41***    1.93 1.55–2.42***
  Both personal and family threats 2.10 1.58–2.79***    2.11 1.57–2.83***
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
 Violence
  No violence (reference) 1.0   1.0    
  Physical violence only 1.32 1.16–1.50*** 1.15 0.89–1.48   
  Sexual violence only 0.80 0.60–1.07 0.84 0.52–1.34   
  Physical and sexual violence 1.33 1.18–1.51*** 1.55 1.37–1.74***   
 Receiving threats during trafficking
  None (reference) 1.0     1.0  
  Personal threats 1.49 1.16–1.92***    1.44 1.06–1.96*
  Both personal and family threats 1.95 1.35–2.82***    1.96 1.32–2.91***
Depression
 Violence
  No violence (reference) 1.0   1.0    
  Physical violence only 1.17 0.97–1.40 1.12 0.96–1.32   
  Sexual violence only 0.96 0.79–1.16 1.02 0.85–1.22   
  Both physical and sexual violence 1.44 1.23–1.68*** 1.57 1.33–1.85***   
 Receiving threats during trafficking
  None (reference) 1.0     1.0  
  Personal threats 1.46 1.18–1.81***    1.46 1.20–1.78***
  Both personal and family threats 1.51 1.21–1.87***    1.42 1.25–1.63***
  1. Models for anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were run separately but they were adjusted for the same variables
  2. *p ≤ 0.05
  3. **p ≤ 0.01
  4. ***p ≤ 0.001
  5. aAdjusted Model 1 (violence): age, country of exploitation, sector of exploitation, time in trafficking
  6. bAdjusted Model 2 (coercion or threats): age, country of exploitation, sector of exploitation, time in trafficking
  7. cPR Prevalence ratio
  8. d95% Confidence interval