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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of trafficking survivors by sex: The Study on Trafficking, Exploitation and Abuse in the Mekong Sub-region (STEAM), n = 1015

From: Mental health, violence and psychological coercion among female and male trafficking survivors in the greater Mekong sub-region: a cross-sectional study

  Females Males  
n (%) n (%) p-value
Total 569 (56.1) 446 (43.9)  
Age    0.03
 10–17 281 (49.4) 63 (14.1)  
 18–25 197 (34.6) 201 (45.1)  
 26 or above 91 (16.0) 182 (40.8)  
Country of origin    0.0001
 Cambodia 49 (8.6) 257 (57.6)  
 Vietnam 238 (41.8) 106 (23.8)  
 Othera 282 (49.6) 83 (18.6)  
Country of exploitation    0.001
 China 223 (39.2) 107 (24.0)  
 Thailand 308 (54.1) 140 (31.4)  
 Otherb 38 (6.7) 199 (44.6)  
Sector of exploitation    0.001d
 Sex work, forced marriage, entertainment, and dancingc 410 (72.1) 46 (10.3) 0.006e
 Domestic work, cleaning, restaurant work, begging, and other 66 (11.6)  
 Construction and factory work 54 (9.5) 101 (22.7)  
 Livestock, agriculture, fishing 39 (6.9) 299 (67.0)  
Time in trafficking situation (months)f    0.002
 1–12 78 (14.5) 24 (5.7)  
 13 or more 460 (85.5) 401 (94.4)  
Violence during traffickingg    0.004h
 No violence 295 (52.1) 219 (49.3)  
 Physical violence 73 (12.9) 218 (49.2)  
 Sexual violence 89 (15.7) 0 (0)  
 Both physical and sexual violence 109 (19.3) 6 (1.4)  
Receiving threats during trafficking    0.0001
 None 345 (60.6) 192 (43.1)  
 Personal threats 141 (24.8) 206 (46.2)  
 Both, personal and family threats 83 (14.6) 48 (10.8)  
Physical violence with threats made with a gun, knife, or other weapon during traffickingi    0.20
 Yes 182 (32.2) 225 (50.5)  
 No 384 (67.8) 221 (49.6)  
  1. aOther country: Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam
  2. bOther country: Cambodia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Mauritius, South Africa, and Russia
  3. c43.9% and 25.8% of females in this sector of exploitation were exploited in Thailand and China, respectively
  4. dp-value for females
  5. ep-value for males. For males, we collapsed together the sex work, forced marriage, entertainment, dancing, domestic work, cleaning, restaurant work, begging, and other due to small sample size across those sectors (n = 46)
  6. f31 females and 21 males missing
  7. g3 females and 3 males missing
  8. hp-value for females
  9. i3 females missing