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Table 5 Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, Depression (SMFQ)

From: Emotion regulation and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression in children aged 8–12 years: does parental gender play a differentiating role?

Variables Fathers’ reports on child depression symptoms as dependent, fathers’ reports on control and independent variables (n = 285) Mothers’ reports on child depression symptoms as dependent, mothers’ reports on control and independent variables (n = 534)
β (CI) t Part2 Total R2 R 2 β (CI) t Part2 Total R2 R 2
Step 1     23.40% 25.00%     27.70% 28.50%
Age (child) 0.06 (−0.22, 0.88) 1.18     0.07 (−0.03, 0.76) 1.83    
Gender (child) 0.02 (−0.78, 1.16) 0.38     −0.06 (−1.34, 0.09) −1.71    
Economy (family) 0.04 (−0.28, − 0.66) 0.80     −0.02 (− 0.40, 0.25) −0.46    
Parental Education 0.07 (−0.77, 0.16) −1.28     0.04 (−0.19, 0.59) 1.00    
Stress (EASQ) 0.20 (0.29, 1.00) 3.55***     0.30 (0.67, 1.14) 7.51***    
Parental psychiatric health (HSCL) 0.38 (0.34, 0.61) 6.81***     0.35 (0.31, 0.48) 9.01***    
Step 2     51.60% 28.00%     49.40% 21.60%
Age (child) 0.05 (−0.17, 0.70) 1.19     0.06 (−0.02, 0.64) 1.88    
Gender (child) 0.07 (−0.13, 1.42) 1.64     −0.02 (− 0.77, 0.44) −0.53    
Economy (family) 0.02 (−0.29, 0.46) 0.46     −0.01 (− 0.31, 0.23) −0.29    
Parental Education −0.01 (− 0.42, 0.32) −0.27     0.09 (0.11, 0.76) 2.62**    
Stress (EASQ) 0.12 (0.08, 0.66) 2.54*     0.19 (0.37, 0.78) 5.55***    
Parental psychiatric health (HSCL) 0.19 (0.12, 0.35) 4.01***     0.19 (0.14, 0.29) 5.53***    
ERC Liability/Negativity (L/N) 0.53 (0.34, 0.50) 10.20*** 17.72%    0.34 (0.22, 0.34) 8.92*** 7.56%   
ERC Emotion regulation (ER) −0.08 (−0.27, 0.03) −1.64 0.46%    −0.25 (− 0.48, − 0.26) −6.68*** 4.24%   
  1. All scores are sum-score. ERC L/N high scores indicate poor regulation skills. ERC ER high scores indicate good regulation skills
  2. SMFQ Mood and Feeling Questionnaire – short form, ERC Emotion regulation checklist, HSCL The Hopkin‘s symptom check list, EASQ Early Adolescence Stress Questionnaire
  3. *p = < 0.05. **p = < 0.01. ***p = < 0.001
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