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Table 1 Comparison of key covariates (categorical variables) for children with behaviour problems ages 6–10, comparing those who go on to have antisocial behaviour (ASB) with those who do not

From: Preventing at-risk children from developing antisocial and criminal behaviour: a longitudinal study examining the role of parenting, community and societal factors in middle childhood

Categorical variables Child’s age at measurement Categories No ASB age 16–21 ASB age 16–21 Chi-square(df) and p valuesa
n (%) n (%)
Child’s sex Birth Male 472 (51.8) 193 (57.1) χ2(1) = 2.77
p = 0.096
  Female 439 (48.2) 145 (42.9)
Biological father lives with child 47 months No 95 (11.8) 54 (17.9) χ2 = (1)7.08
p = 0.008
  Yes 710 (88.2) 247 (82.1)
Housing owned or not 33 months Not owned 133 (16.5) 104 (33.4) χ2 = (1)38.26
p < .001
  Owned 671 (83.5) 207 (66.6)
  1. acomparing ASB groups