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Table 1 Characteristics of the patient sample and the subclinical sample in Iran and Germany

From: Why is this happening to me? – a comparison of illness representations between Iranian and German people with mental illness

  Subclinical sample Patient sample
Iran Germany Statistical comparison Iran Germany Statistical comparison
N 264 102   87 90  
Age (M, SD years) 29.6 (12.0) 28.0 (9.2) t(222.5) = 1.38 34.2 (10.2) 41.0 (13.1) t(169.6) = 3.92***
Sex (% female) 62.2 79.4 χ2 (2) = 17.13*** 69.2 60.4 χ2 (1) = 1.54
Educational level (%)    χ2 (5) = 29.36***    χ2 (5) = 58.72***
 Primary school 1.2   11.1 1.1  
 Secondary school 1.2   6.7 26.7  
 Diploma 28.8 52.9   23.3 54.4  
 Associate degree 6.8 10.8   10.0 10.0  
 Bachelor’s degree 34.0 11.8   35.6 2.2  
 Master’s degree 28.0 24.5   13.3 5.6  
Religiousness (%)    χ2 (2) = 55.32***    χ2 (2) = 35.4***
 Believer in religion 43.0 18.2   48.8 10.0  
 Merely doing duties 40.8 27.3   39.3 53.3  
 Without religious belief 16.2 54.5   11.9 36.7  
Diagnosis (%)       
 Mood 64.8 77.8  
 Anxiety 35.2 6.1  
  Mixed 16.1  
Hospitalization (%) 31.7 53.5 χ2 (1) = 8.3**
Outpatient treatment (%) 72.1 67.4 χ2 (1) = 0.45
Mental stress (M, SD)       
 PHQ9a 8.1 (5.3) 6.5 (4.0) t(238.4) = 3.20** 14.0 (6.5) 7.6 (4.9) t(167.2) = − 7.38***
 GAD7b 5.2 (4.4) 4.1 (2.0) t(358.6) = 8.45*** 10.6 (5.8) 3.5 (2.3) t(115.6) = −
 PHQ15c 8.6 (4.7) 4.1 (2.0)   11.7 (5.1) 4.8 (3.3) 10.85***
 SOMS7d 5.5 (6.1) 1.9 (2.4) t(372.1) = 13.20***t 10.5 (8.6) 5.3 (5.8) t(154.7) = 10.80***
(372.4) = 8.19***    t(156.5) = 4.73***
  1. Note. N = Sample size, M = Mean, SD = Standard deviation, t = t value, χ2 = Chi-square value, a Depression score of the PHQ, b Anxiety score of the PHQ, c Score for somatoform symptoms of the PHQ, d Score for somatization symptom count of the SOMS7 * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001