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Table 4 Relationship between multiple forms of child maltreatment (ACE) and scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

From: Multi-type child maltreatment: prevalence and its relationship with self-esteem among secondary school students in Tanzania

Forms of ACE (dependent variable)   Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale
Total Low Normal High χ2 P-Value
N = 1000 N = 17.9% N = 65.8% N = 16.3%
Emotional Abuse 218 46 (21.1) 52 (23.9) 120 (55.0) 4.925* 0.001
Sexual Abuse 247 35 (14.2) 50 (20.2) 162 (65.6) 0.439 0.383
Emotional Neglect 519 82 (15.8) 101 (19.5) 336 (64.7) 2.329* 0.032
Physical Neglect 262 36 (13.7) 70 (26.7) 156 (59.5) 22.508** < 0.001
Physical Abuse 821 136 (16.6) 135 (16.4) 550 (67.0) 6.722* 0.036
Household Mental Illness 142 28 (19.7) 23 (16.2) 91 (64.1) 1.677 0.466
Household Substance Abuse 114 20 (17.5) 22 (19.3) 72 (63.2) 0.554 0.819
Household Physical Violence 799 126 (15.8) 143 (17.9) 530 (66.3) 0.791 0.651
Parental Separation 201 36 (17.9) 42 (20.9) 123 (61.2) 4.593 0.290
Criminal Household Member 176 35 (19.9) 26 (14.8) 115 (65.3) 3.115 0.239
  1. *P-value< 0.05
  2. **P-value< 0.01