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Table 5 Evaluation tools and methodologies used in included studies

From: Systematic review of resilience-enhancing, universal, primary school-based mental health promotion programs

Criteria Tool First author (Year) of Studies in which Tool was Used Purpose Methodology Timeframe
Depression Children’s Depression Inventory, Short or Complete Form
CDI
Sibinga (2016) [30]
Kraag (2009) [39]
Assess depressive symptoms Self-reported survey Pre- assessment
Post-assessment
Follow up
Anxiety Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children
MASC
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess anxiety symptoms Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale
SCAS
Yamamoto (2017) [38] Assess frequency of anxiety symptoms Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children
STAIC
Kraag (2009) [39] Assess anxiety symptoms Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Follow up
Social/Cognitive Development Socio-moral Reflection Measure, Short Form
SRM-SF
Malti (2008) [36] Assess developmental levels of cognitive-moral skills Paper and pencil self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Resilience Researcher-developed Resilience Scale Malti (2008) [36] Measure selected basic resilience factors, emotional regulation skills, academic skills Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-Assessment
Resilience in Elementary School Children Scale
RESC
Yamamoto (2017) [38] Measure 19 elements relating to aspects of resilience Self-reported Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Socio-Emotional Profile
(Dumas et al, 1997)
Dufour (2011) [34] Measure social competencies and adaption problems 80 items on six point scale, self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Mindfulness Children’s Acceptance and Mindfulness Measure Sibinga (2016) [30] Measure of mindfulness 10 item, self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Symptoms Youth Self Report
YSR
Malti (2008) [36] Assess behavioral and emotional functioning and symptoms Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Symptoms Checklist 90-R
SCL-90-R
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess paranoid ideation, hostility, somatization Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Stress Children’s Post-Traumatic Symptom Severity Checklist
CPSS
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess stress symptom severity and frequency Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Maastricht University Stress Instrument for Children
MUSIC
Kraag (2009) [39] Assess stress symptom severity and frequency Self-reported scale survey
Developed for study
Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Followup
Relationships Social Support Scale for Children Dufour (2011) [34]
Yamamoto (2017) [38]
Measure perceived social support by children: social support from parents, teachers, peers in class and intimate friends 24 items on four point scale Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
School Social Behavior Skills
SSBS
Caldarella (2009) [40] Evaluate social competence and antisocial behavior of children Norm-referenced, self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Social Skills Rating System
SSRS
Caldarella (2009) [40] Evaluate pro-social skills and problem behaviors of students Six-subscale items, norm-referenced, self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Social Skills Questionnaire
Teacher Form, Elementary Level
SSQTF
Student Form, Elementary Level
SSQSF
Mishara (2006) [32] Measure frequency of observed behaviors and social skills; scores determined for cooperation, assertion, self-control Rating of frequency of specific behaviors Process evaluation
Mood & Emotions Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
PANAS
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess mood and emotion regulation Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Differential Emotional Scale
DES
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess mood and emotion regulation Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Aggression Scale Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess mood and emotion regulation Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory
STAXI-2
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess mood and emotion regulation Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires
SDQ
Clarke (2014) [33]
Holen (2012) [35]
Assess children’s emotional and behavioral functioning: emotional symptoms, conduct 2problems, hyperactivity, peer relationship problems, pro-social behavior Self-reported questionnaire, 25 items with five main subscale scores Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Follow up
Feelings Activity Clarke (2015) [31] Assess ability to identify feelings in response to problem situations Part of participatory workshop evaluation: 6 vignettes read aloud and children asked to respond and explain each Process evaluation
Post-assessment
Social and Emotional Competence Index Nielsen (2015) [37] Assess assertiveness, empathy and collaborative skills Self-reported questionnaire with ranked answers Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Emotional Literacy Checklist Clarke (2014) [33] Assess emotional literacy: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills Self-reported questionnaire, 20 items rated on four-point Likert Scale Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Follow up
Coping Children’s Response Style Questionnaire
CRSQ
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess coping ability by measuring 3 types of reactions: rumination, problem solving, destruction Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Brief COPE Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess coping ability by measuring 14 coping approaches Self-reported survey Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Coping Self-Efficacy Scale
CSE
Sibinga (2016) [30] Assess coping ability Self-reported survey with end result of single variable Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Social Problem-Solving Inventory
SPSI
Kraag (2009) [39] Measure problem-solving skills Self-reported scales Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Follow up
Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory Mishara (2006) [32] Dufour (2011) [34] Gather information about actual coping experiences of children; identify frequencies of use of coping skills Self-reported questionnaire, 26 items Process evaluation
Post-assessment
Draw and Write Technique Clarke (2015) [31] Gather personal experiences of how children coped with problem situations Part of participatory workshop: children asked to draw picture about emotion and draw how they coped Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
KidCope Questionnaire Holen (2012) [35] Measure of 10 coping strategies: distraction, social withdrawal, cognitive restructuring, self-criticism, blaming others, problem solving, emotional expression, wishful thinking, social support, resignation Self-reporting questionnaires with adaptations for different age groups Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Focus Groups Malti (2008) [36] Evaluation of program implementation and process Multiple students with one researcher Process evaluation
Implementation evaluation
Post-assessment
Researcher-developed questionnaires Malti (2008) [36]
Dufour (2011) [34]
Assessment of components of program; assessment of children’s status by parents and teachers Self-reported questionnaires Pre-assessment
Process evaluation
Post-assessment
Climate assessment
Session Reports Mishara (2006) [32]
Dufour (2011) [34]
Holen (2012) [35]
Assessment of each component of program Qualitative, self-administered report by program deliverer after each session Process evaluation
Implementation evaluation
Interviews Malti (2008) [36]
Clarke (2015) [31]
Assessment of components of program One-on-one interviews with researcher or evaluator Pre-assessment
Process evaluation
Post-assessment
Implementation evaluation
Programme Fidelity Checklist Clarke (2014) [33]
Caldarella (2009) [39]
Report of what portions of program session fully or partially implemented, which ones omitted Self-reported checklist and questionnaire Process assessment
Implementation evaluation
Class Environment Climate Questionnaire Dufour (2011) [34] Assess climate of classroom and describe teacher characteristics Self-reported questionnaire, 36 items Pre-assessment
Post-assessment
Acceptability Student Self-Assessment of Social Validity Caldarella (2009) [40] Assess student perception of social validity of program Self-reported questionnaire, 10 questions: 8 with Likert Scale, 2 open ended Post-assessment
Intervention Rating Profile-15
IRP-15
Caldarella (2009) [40] Assess teacher’s perception of social validity of program Self-reported questionnaire with 15 items on 6-point Likert scale Post-assessment