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Table 2 Key elements of programs reported in included studies

From: Systematic review of resilience-enhancing, universal, primary school-based mental health promotion programs

First Author (year published)
Summary Solely class-based Changes during delivery Program Support Delivered by teacher Delivered by outsider Significant Implementation Age Appropriate
Malti, (2008) [36]
Multi-component program with a few components delivered universally in the classroom
Duration: school year
Sibinga (2016) [30]
Based on adult mindfulness curriculum, three core sections focusing on didactic mindfulness, mindfulness practice, applications to life
Duration: 12 weeks
Learn Young, Learn Fair
Kraag (2009) [39]
Weekly hour-long lessons with optional, additional five weekly booster sessions, homework assignments, daily exercises
Duration: 7 months
Zippy’s Friends
Mishara (2006) [32]
Clarke (2014) [33]
Dufour (2011) [34]
Holen. (2012) [35]
Clarke (2015) [31]
24 sessions conducted each week built around 6 stories of a group of children and their pet insect Zippy; each module focusing on a theme with participatory activities
Duration: 24 weeks
Nielsen (2015) [37]
Year-long program with four themes focusing on education and activities for school children, staff skill development, parental involvement and school initiatives
Duration: 1 year
Strong Start
Caldarella (2009) [40]
Programing with weekly direct instruction sessions with scenarios, role plays, think/pair/share activities, children’s literature and a curriculum mascot
Duration: 6 weeks
You Can Do It! Education
Yamamoto (2017) [38]
8 × 45 min intervention sessions focused on themes such as emotions, ‘resilience boosters’, and ‘using your head’ accompanied by activities that promote the topic and foster resilience and emotional intelligence
Duration 20 weeks (program delivery was affected by time constraints in the school, school vacations, and classroom obligations. Hence, a reduced smaller number of sessions were conducted during the time allotment of 20 weeks.)