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Table 1 Summary of Articles Included in the Review

From: Systematic review of resilience-enhancing, universal, primary school-based mental health promotion programs

First author, year published Study type Program Name Location Study Type Sample Size Aim of Program and Study MMAT Score
Malti (2008)[36]
Program Evaluation: Relationships as key to student development
RALLY United States Quasi-experimental, Mixed methods 92 students - Improved resilience outcomes, learning interest and decrease risk-taking.
- Assess program implementation quality
100%
Sibinga (2016)[30]
School-Based Mindfulness Instruction: An RCT
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) United States (Baltimore, Maryland) Randomized, Active Controlled Trial Interv: 159 students - Improve psychological functioning to decrease negative effects of stress
- Reduce worries about future
50%
Kraag (2009)[39]
“Learn Young, Learn Fair”, a stress management program for fifth and sixth graders: longitudinal results from an experimental study
Learn Young, Learn Fair Netherlands Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Interv: 693 students (26 schools)
Control: 732 students (24 schools)
- Improve stress management and coping skills
- Reduce anxiety and depression symptoms and incidence
100%
Mishara (2006)[32]
Effectiveness of a mental health promotion program to improve coping skills in young children: Zippy’s Friends
Zippy’s Friends Denmark & Lithuania Non-randomized Experimental Trial Students
Lithuania:
Interv: 314
Control: 104
Denmark:
Interv: 322
Control: 110
- Increase ability to cope with everyday life adversities and negative events
- Decrease problems that arise from stressful situations
- Development of adaptive coping skills
75%
Clarke (2014)[33]
Evaluating the implementation of a school-based emotional well-being program: a cluster randomized controlled trial of Zippy’s Friends for children in disadvantaged primary schools
Zippy’s Friends Ireland Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Interv: 544 students
Control: 222 students
- Increase ability to cope with everyday life adversities and negative events
- Decrease problems that arise from stressful situations
- Development of adaptive coping skills
25%
Dufour (2011)[34]
Improving Children’s Adaptation: New Evidence Regarding the Effectiveness of Zippy’s Friends, a School Mental Health Promotion Program
Zippy’s Friends Canada (Quebec) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Interv: 310 students (16 classes)
Control: 303 students (19 classes)
- Increase ability to cope with everyday life adversities and negative events
- Decrease problems that arise from stressful situations
- Development of adaptive coping skills
50%
Holen (2012)[35]
The effectiveness of a universal school-based program on coping and mental health: a randomized, controlled study of Zippy’s Friends
Zippy’s Friends Norway Randomized Controlled Trial Interv: 686 students (47 classes, 18 schools)
Control: 638 students (44 classes, 17 schools)
- Increase ability to cope with everyday life adversities and negative events
- Decrease problems that arise from stressful situations
- Development of adaptive coping skills
75%
Clarke (2015)[31]
Evaluating the implementation of an emotional wellbeing program for primary school children using participatory methods
Zippy’s Friends Ireland Participatory Workshop of Randomized Controlled Trial Interv: 544 students
Control: 222 students
Workshop:
- Increase ability to cope with everyday life adversities and negative events
- Decrease problems that arise from stressful situations
- Development of adaptive coping skills
100%
Nielsen (2015)[37]
Promotion of social and emotional competence: Experiences from a mental health intervention applying a whole school approach
Up Denmark Multi-component Intervention, No Control Group 589 students (2 schools) - Enhance social and emotional competencies to improve mental health
- Increase positivity of school mental health environment
50%
Caldarella (2009)[40]
Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Second Grade Students: A Study of the Strong Start Curriculum
Strong Start United States (Utah) Quasi-Experimental, Non-Equivalent Control Group 26 students - Prevent future emotional and behavioral problems via the promotion of social and emotional wellbeing 50%
Yamamoto (2017) [38]
Effects of the cognitive behavioral You Can Do It! Education program on the resilience of Japanese elementary school students: A preliminary investigation
You Can Do It! Education Tokyo Quasi-Experimental, Intervention, Control Group 125 students, intervention n = 78, control group =47 - Evaluate a mental health promotion program’s efficacy in enhancing resilience in schools 100%