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Table 1 Hypotheses corresponding to each of the seven research questions described in terms of the affected outcome variable, the affecting intervention(s) or correlated predictor, the effect or relationship type, the mediating or moderating variable (if applicable), and analysis method used for hypothesis testing

From: A protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled superiority trial investigating the effects of two pedagogical methodologies in Swedish preschool settings on language and communication, executive functions, auditive selective attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills

Research question Outcome variable(s) Intervention/ Predictor Effect Mediator / moderator Measure(s) Analysis
RQ1: Intervention effects EF SEMLA & DIL Positive intervention effects Selective attention difference, EF indice difference Mixed effects modelling
Early Maths skills SEMLA & DIL Positive intervention effects Maths difference Mixed effects modelling
Socioemotional skills SEMLA & DIL Positive intervention effects TEC difference Mixed effects modelling
Communication SEMLA & DIL Positive intervention effects Communication indice difference Mixed effects modelling
Language SEMLA & DIL Positive intervention effects Language indice difference Mixed effects modelling
RQ2: Intervention differences Maths SEMLA vs. DIL Stronger effect of DIL Maths difference Planned comparisons
EF SEMLA vs. DIL Differential effect Selective attention difference, EF indice difference Planned comparisons
Communication SEMLA vs. DIL Stronger effect of SEMLA Communication indice difference Planned comparisons
Language SEMLA vs. DIL Stronger effect of SEMLA Language indice difference Planned comparisons
RQ3: Mediating effects Socioemotional skills SEMLA & DIL EF mediated effect EF TEC difference Test of mediation effect
Communication SEMLA & DIL EF mediated effect EF Communication indice difference Test of mediation effect
Language SEMLA & DIL EF mediated effect EF Language indice difference Test of mediation effect
Maths SEMLA & DIL EF mediated effect EF Maths difference Test of mediation effect
EF SEMLA & DIL Language mediated effect Language Selective attention difference, EF indice difference Test of mediation effect
EF SEMLA & DIL Maths mediated effect Maths Selective attention difference, EF indice difference Test of mediation effect
RQ4: Moderating effects EF SEMLA & DIL Negative SES moderation SES Selective attention difference, EF indice difference Mixed effects interaction model
Language SEMLA & DIL Negative SES moderation SES Language indice difference Mixed effects interaction model
Socioemotional skills SEMLA & DIL Negative SES moderation SES TEC difference Mixed effects interaction model
EF SEMLA & DIL Negative EF moderation EF EF indice Mixed effects interaction model
EF SEMLA Positive ECERS moderation ECERS EF indice Mixed effects interaction model
Maths SEMLA Positive ECERS moderation ECERS Maths difference Mixed effects interaction model
Socioemotional skills SEMLA Positive ECERS moderation ECERS TEC difference Mixed effects interaction model
Communication SEMLA Positive ECERS moderation ECERS Communication indice difference Mixed effects interaction model
Language SEMLA Positive ECERS moderation ECERS Language indice difference Mixed effects interaction model
RQ5: Background-outcome relationships Selective attention SES Positive relationship Selective attention Correlational / mixed effects model
EF SES Positive relationship EF Correlational / mixed effects model
Language SES Positive relationship Language Correlational / mixed effects model
Communication Sex Higher mean for girls Communication indice t-test / mixed effects model
Socioemotional skills Sex Higher mean for girls TEC t-test / mixed effects model
EF Sex Higer mean for girls EF indice t-test / mixed effects model
EF Multilingual Higer mean for multilinguals EF indice t-test / mixed effects model
Maths Other L1 Higher mean for Swedish L1 children Maths t-test / mixed effects model
Socioemotional skills Language Positive relationship TEC Correlational / mixed effects model
RQ6: Background relationships Preschool time Preschool start Negative relationship Preschool time Correlation / mixed model
SECDI Age Positive relationship SECDI Correlation / mixed model
Preschool start Other L1 Higher mean for Swedish L2 children Preschool start t-test / mixed-model
Preschool time SES Positive relationship Preschool time Correlation / mixed model
SES Multilingual Higher mean for Swedish L1 children SES t-test / mixed-model
SECDI SES Positive relationship SECDI Correlation / mixed model
RQ7: Intervention effect differences EF SEMLA vs. DIL Less variation in DIL Selective attention difference, EF indice difference F-test of variance equality
Early Maths skills SEMLA vs. DIL Less variation in DIL Maths difference F-test of variance equality
Socioemotional skills SEMLA vs. DIL Less variation in DIL TEC difference F-test of variance equality
Communication SEMLA vs. DIL Less variation in DIL Communication indice difference F-test of variance equality
Language SEMLA vs. DIL Less variation in DIL Language indice difference F-test of variance equality